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  • Author or Editor: Ditte M. T. Adler x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the in vitro effects of clinically relevant concentrations of the local anesthetics (LAs) bupivacaine, lidocaine, lidocaine with preservative (LP), mepivacaine, and ropivacaine on equine chondrocyte and fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) viability.

SAMPLE

Chondrocytes and FLSs of the metacarpophalangeal joints of 4 healthy adult horses.

PROCEDURES

Viability of chondrocytes and FLSs was determined with 3 assays: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and trypan blue (TB) exclusion (only FLS). Viability was assessed after 30- and 60-minute exposures to 0.0625%, 0.125%, and 0.25% bupivacaine; 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% lidocaine; 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% LP; 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% mepivacaine; and 0.125%, 0.25%, and 0.5% ropivacaine.

RESULTS

Viability of chondrocytes was significantly decreased with exposure to 0.25% bupivacaine, 1% lidocaine, 1% LP, 1% mepivacaine, and 0.25% ropivacaine. Viability of FLSs was significantly decreased with exposure to 0.25% bupivacaine, 1% mepivacaine, 1% LP, and 0.5% ropivacaine.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Clinically relevant concentrations of LAs had in vitro time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity for chondrocytes and FLSs isolated from the metacarpophalangeal joints of healthy horses. Bupivacaine was more toxic to chondrocytes than lidocaine, mepivacaine, and ropivacaine, whereas bupivacaine, LP, mepivacaine, and ropivacaine were more toxic to FLSs than preservative-free lidocaine. Several LAs may negatively affect chondrocyte and FLS viability.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the extent of inflammation and catabolic collagen response in the middle carpal joints (MCJs) of healthy horses following intra-articular injection of 2% lidocaine, 2% mepivacaine, lactated Ringer solution (LRS), or 0.1% methyl parahydroxybenzoate.

ANIMALS

17 adult horses.

PROCEDURES

In the first of 2 experiments, the left middle carpal joint (MCJ) of each of 12 horses was injected with 10 mL of 2% lidocaine (n = 3), 2% mepivacaine (3), or LRS (control; 6). After a 4-week washout period, the right MCJ of the horses that received lidocaine or mepivacaine was injected with 10 mL of LRS, and the right MCJ of horses that received LRS was injected with 10 mL of 2% lidocaine (n = 3) or 2% mepivacaine (3). In experiment 2, the left MCJ of each of 5 horses was injected with 10 mL of 0.1% methyl parahydroxybenzoate. After a 48-hour washout period, the right MCJ of each horse was injected with 10 mL of LRS. Synovial fluid (SF) samples were aseptically collected before and at predetermined times after each injection. Synovial fluid WBC count, neutrophil percentage, and total protein, neutrophil myeloperoxidase, neutrophil elastase, and Coll2-1 concentrations were compared among treatments.

RESULTS

Both lidocaine and mepivacaine induced SF changes indicative of inflammation and a catabolic collagen response, but the magnitude of those changes was more pronounced for lidocaine. Methyl parahydroxybenzoate did not cause any SF changes indicative of inflammation.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that mepivacaine was safer than lidocaine for intra-articular injection in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research