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  • Author or Editor: Dirk U. Pfeiffer x
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Objective—To investigate the relationship between stage of estrous cycle and bone cell activity in Thoroughbreds.

Sample Population—Blood samples collected from forty-seven 2-year-old Thoroughbred mares in training for racing.

Procedures—Blood samples were collected monthly (in April through September) from the mares. Stage of estrus was determined by assessing serum progesterone concentration. Bone cell activity was determined by measuring concentrations of 2 markers of bone formation (osteocalcin and the carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I collagen [PICP]) and a marker of bone resorption (the cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen [ICTP]) in sera.

Results—When the relationship between stage of the estrous cycle and markers of bone cell activity was examined, serum concentrations of both osteocalcin and ICTP were significantly higher in mares that were in the luteal phase, compared with mares that were at other stages of the estrous cycle. Stage of estrus did not affect serum PICP concentration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that bone cell activity in Thoroughbred mares fluctuates during the estrous cycle; serum concentrations of markers of bone formation and bone resorption are increased during the luteal phase. Further studies are required to determine whether these changes are of clinical importance and increase the risk of injury for mares in training during the breeding season. As in humans, stage of estrus must be considered as a source of uncontrollable variability in serum bone marker concentrations in horses.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To identify major risk factors associated with anesthetic-related death in dogs.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—148 dogs that died or were euthanized within 48 hours after undergoing anesthesia or sedation and for which anesthesia could not be reasonably excluded as a contributory factor (cases) and 487 control dogs that did not die within 48 hours after undergoing anesthesia or sedation (controls).

Procedures—Details of patient characteristics, preoperative evaluation and preparation, procedure, anesthetic and sedative agents used, monitoring, postoperative management, and personnel involved were recorded. Mixed-effects logistic regression modeling was used to identify factors associated with anesthetic-related death.

Results—An increase in physical status grade, urgency of the procedure, age, or intended duration of the procedure; a decrease in body weight; anesthesia for a major versus a minor procedure; and use of injectable agents for anesthetic induction and halothane for maintenance or use of inhalant anesthetics alone (compared with use of injectable agents for induction and isoflurane for maintenance) were associated with increased odds of anesthetic-related death.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The results suggested that specific factors could be associated with increased odds of anesthetic-related death in dogs. Knowledge of these factors should aid the preoperative assessment and perioperative management of dogs undergoing anesthesia and sedation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association