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  • Author or Editor: Diego G. Diel x
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To determine severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) serum antibody titers in domestic goats after SC and IM administration of an experimental, veterinary SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


31 healthy adult domestic goats from 4 zoological institutions.


On day 0, blood was collected for baseline serum titer before vaccination with 1 mL SARS-CoV-2 recombinant S protein vaccine SC (n = 22) or IM (n = 9). A booster vaccination was administered 21 (SC group) or 28 days (IM group) after the initial vaccine and blood samples were collected at days 21 (SC group) or 28 (IM group), 42, 90, and 180 postvaccinations. The study took place between September 27, 2021, and June 01, 2022. Seroconversion for SARS-CoV-2 was assessed by a SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralization (VN) assay.


Before vaccination, no goats had detectable antibodies. On day 42, 100% of goats had detectable serum titers. Serum titers peaked at day 42 for 94% of goats vaccinated by either route of administration. There was a significant difference between SC and IM groups regarding the proportion of goats with detectable titers on day 21/28 (68% vs 0%, respectively) and day 180 (50% vs 89%, respectively), relative to day 0.


The 2 vaccination protocols (SC 21 days apart and IM 28 days apart) were similarly effective in mounting serum antibody response in goats. The SC route of administration appeared to have a more rapid onset of immunity, while the IM route may have produced a longer duration of immunity. These data may be useful in determining appropriate SARS-CoV-2 vaccination schedules in ruminants.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US.


10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021.


A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals’ course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case.


SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat.


This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association