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  • Author or Editor: Diego A. Portela x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the minimal electric threshold of neurostimulation dorsally and ventrally to the interarcuate ligament in the lumbosacral area necessary to cause muscle contraction of the hind limb or tail and determine whether a continuous electrical stimulation applied to an insulated needle during lumbosacral epidural needle placement could be used to distinguish the epidural from the intrathecal space in rabbits.

Animals—24 New Zealand white rabbits.

Procedures—Rabbits received iohexol (0.2 mL/kg) either dorsally (group 1) or ventrally to the interarcuate ligament in the lumbosacral area (groups 2 and 3). Correct placement of the needle was determined by use of the loss of resistance to injection technique (group 2) or a continuous electrical stimulation (group 3) and confirmed by examination of the iohexol distribution pattern on radiographs.

Results—In all rabbits of group 1, iohexol was injected in the lumbosacral area, outside the epidural space. In groups 2 and 3, iohexol was injected intrathecally. No pure iohexol epidural migration of iohexol was observed. Mean ± SD minimal electric threshold to elicit a motor response was 1.2 ± 0.3 mA, 0.3 ± 0.1 mA, and 0.3 ± 0.1 mA in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Neurostimulation was a useful technique to determine correct intrathecal needle placement in rabbits but failed to detect the lumbosacral epidural space when the common technique, used in dogs and cats for the lumbosacral epidural approach, was used.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the feasibility of endoscopic application of fibrin glue for the treatment of experimentally induced postintubation tracheal laceration (PITL) in feline cadavers. The secondary objective was to determine the optimal technique for application of the fibrin glue.

ANIMALS

20 feline cadavers (n = 10 fresh and 10 frozen).

PROCEDURES

An experimentally induced tracheal rupture was created via overinflation of an endotracheal tube cuff. After endoscopic identification of the tracheal tear, fibrin glue was instilled into the tracheal defect in either a bridging or filling fashion. Following the procedure, the airway of each cat was examined and leak tested. Length of tear, volume of glue applied, procedural time, and glue efficacy were recorded.

RESULTS

Experimentally induced tracheal lacerations were full thickness with a mean length of 3.27 ± 0.96 cm. A complete seal was attained in 6 of the 9 fresh cadavers when filling the defect with fibrin glue. In the remaining 3 fresh cadavers, air leakage was restricted to the dorsal mediastinum. Bridging the defect with fibrin glue did not attain a seal in fresh or frozen cadavers. The median volume of glue used to fill defects in fresh cadavers was 0.5 mL (range, 0.4 to 2 mL). Procedural time for the application of fibrin glue was 10.5 ± 4.1 minutes for bridging the defect and 7.8 ± 1.5 minutes for filling the defect.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Endoscopic application of fibrin glue may be a feasible method of treatment for PITL in cats.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether anesthesia type (sedation or general anesthesia) affects kid survival to discharge in caprine cesarean sections (C-sections).

ANIMALS

Retrospective cohort of 99 caprine C-sections (2011–2021).

PROCEDURES

All surgeries were performed via left flank laparotomy in right lateral recumbency. The number of kids alive at presentation, surgery, and discharge was recorded. Kids that were dead on presentation or euthanized intraoperatively were excluded. Goats were classified as “healthy” (American Society of Anesthesiologists status ≤ 2) or “sick” (≥ 3).

RESULTS

Kid survival was significantly higher for C-sections performed under sedation (47/52 [90%]) than for C-sections performed under general anesthesia (16/24 [66%]; P = .004). Relative risk was 1.4 and odds ratio was 4.7.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Performing C-sections in sedated goats may improve kid survival rates over those under general anesthesia.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of each of 3 incremental doses of MK-467 for alleviation of dexmedetomidine-induced hemodynamic depression in isoflurane-anesthetized cats.

ANIMALS 6 healthy adult domestic shorthair cats.

PROCEDURES Each cat was anesthetized with isoflurane and received a target-controlled infusion of dexmedetomidine estimated to maintain the plasma dexmedetomidine concentration at 10 ng/mL throughout the experiment. Heart rate (HR) and direct arterial pressures were measured at baseline (isoflurane administration only), during dexmedetomidine infusion, and before and after IV administration of each of 3 serially increasing doses (15, 30, and 60 μg/kg) of MK-467. Cardiac index (CI) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) were recorded at baseline, during dexmedetomidine infusion, and at the mean arterial pressure nadir after administration of the 30- and 60-μg/kg doses of MK-467.

RESULTS Compared with baseline values, the dexmedetomidine infusion significantly decreased HR and increased arterial pressures. Each dose of MK-467 caused a significant decrease in arterial pressures and a significant, albeit clinically irrelevant, increase in HR (≤ 10%). Following administration of the 30- and 60-μg/kg doses of MK-467, all cats developed clinical hypotension (mean arterial pressure, < 60 mm Hg) even though CI and SVR returned to baseline values.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated administration of small doses of MK-467 to isoflurane-anesthetized cats receiving dexmedetomidine restored CI and SVR, but caused a substantial decrease in arterial pressures and only a marginal increase in HR. Therefore, caution should be used when MK-467 is administered to alleviate dexmedetomidine-induced hemodynamic depression in isoflurane-anesthetized cats.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research