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  • Author or Editor: Didier Fau x
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OBJECTIVE To assess use of a new radiographic method to determine the distance by which the tibial tuberosity should be advanced to reduce the patellar tendon-tibial plateau angle (PTA) to 90° by means of the modified Maquet technique (MMT) in dogs.

SAMPLE 24 pelvic limbs from 12 adult medium-sized to large-breed canine cadavers.

PROCEDURES Radiographs of stifle joints at 135° extension in true lateral position were used to determine tibial tuberosity advancement distances for use in the MMT. A method was devised to incorporate the planned osteotomy axis; distal patellar translations of 0, 3, 5, or 10 mm; and advancement cage implant application level along the osteotomy site in advancement planning measurements. Concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) were calculated to compare these adjusted advancement measurements with true advancement measurements obtained for the same joints in another study after treatment by MMT. Intraobserver, interobserver, and total agreement for selected measurements were determined by assessment of CCCs for results obtained by 3 blinded observers.

RESULTS Agreement between true advancement measurements and measurements obtained with osteotomy axis and cage position method calculations that incorporated a 5-mm distal patellar translation distance was excellent (CCC, 0.96). Intraobserver and interobserver agreements for the planning measurements evaluated were good to excellent (CCC, 0.83 to 0.96).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the osteotomy axis and cage position method incorporating a 5-mm distal patellar translation distance has the potential to improve success rates for achieving a PTA of 90° in medium-sized to large-breed dogs undergoing MMT for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Further research is warranted.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To evaluate the validity of 2 radiographic methods for measurement of the tibial tuberosity advancement distance required to achieve a reduction in patellar tendon–tibial plateau angle (PTA) to the ideal 90° in dogs by use of the modified Maquet technique (MMT).

SAMPLE 24 stifle joints harvested from 12 canine cadavers.

PROCEDURES Radiographs of stifle joints placed at 135° in the true lateral position were used to measure the required tibial tuberosity advancement distance with the conventional (AM) and correction (AE) methods. The MMT was used to successively advance the tibial crest to AM and AE. Postoperative PTA was measured on a mediolateral radiograph for each advancement measurement method. If none of the measurements were close to 90°, the advancement distance was modified until the PTA was equal to 90° within 0.1°, and the true advancement distance (TA) was measured. Results were used to determine the optimal commercially available size of cage implant that would be used in a clinical situation.

RESULTS Median AM and AE were 10.6 mm and 11.5 mm, respectively. Mean PTAs for the conventional and correction methods were 93.4° and 92.3°, respectively, and differed significantly from 90°. Median TA was 13.5 mm. The AM and AE led to the same cage size recommendations as for TA for only 1 and 4 stifle joints, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Both radiographic methods of measuring the distance required to advance the tibial tuberosity in dogs led to an under-reduction in postoperative PTA when the MMT was used. A new, more accurate radiographic method needs to be developed.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To describe the prevalence of elbow dysplasia (ED) in 13 dog breeds in France.


A total of 18,870 elbow radiographs taken from 2002 to 2022 were evaluated by 2 independent examiners.


For each breed, the incidence of each of the 4 International Elbow Working Group scoring classes was extracted from the database. Breeds were excluded if fewer than 150 radiographs had been read for that breed.


This study included 17,861 records for 13 dog breeds: American Akita, Alaskan Malamute, Old German Shepherd (Altdeutscher Schäferhund), American Staffordshire Terrier, Australian Shepherd, Belgian Shepherd, White Swiss Shepherd, Bernese Mountain Dog, Cane Corso, Czechoslovakian Wolfdog, Rhodesian Ridgeback, Rottweiler, and Dogue de Bordeaux. The overall prevalence of ED was 11.4%, ranging from 1.1% in the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog to 32.2% in the Dogue de Bordeaux. The Dogue de Bordeaux, Rottweiler, Bernese Mountain Dog, and Cane Corso breeds were most commonly affected by ED. The prevalence of ED was significantly higher in male dogs than in female dogs (17.5% vs 10.5%, P < .05). Joint incongruity and fragmented coronoid process were the 2 most common primary ED lesions identified. The prevalence of ED among the dogs evaluated decreased over the timeframe of the study.


The results of this study help to clarify the prevalence of ED in different breeds in France. These data should be interpreted with caution as this study included a small percentage of the total number of dogs born for each breed in France over the study period.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research