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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the origin of the nonacid (nonparietal) component of gastric secretions in horses induced by pentagastrin infusion.

Animals—6 horses.

Procedure—A Latin square design was used, involving 6 horses, 3 treatments, and 2 duodenal intubation conditions (catheter with balloon to obstruct pylorus [B] or without balloon allowing movement of contents between stomach and duodenum [NB]). Each horse had an indwelling gastric cannula and a catheter positioned in the duodenum. Gastric and duodenal contents were collected during 15-minute periods. Each experiment consisted of serial collection periods: baseline; infusion of pyrilamine maleate (1 mg/kg of body weight, IV); not treated; and IV infusion of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution alone, saline solution containing pentagastrin (6 µg/kg·h), or saline solution containing histamine (30 µg/kg·h). Volume of samples was recorded, and electrolyte concentrations were measured.

Results—Pentagastrin and histamine stimulated maximal acid output; however, during NB conditions, pentagastrin-induced concentration of hydrogen ions was significantly less than during histamine or pentagastrin infusions during B conditions. The large volume produced in response to pentagastrin during NB conditions was accompanied by increased sodium ion output that was greater than for pentagastrin during B conditions, but both values were significantly greater than values for histamine during B or NB conditions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Nonparietal secretions collected during IV infusion of pentagastrin are duodenal in origin. Reflux of duodenal contents into the stomach of horses is enhanced by pentagastrin. Flow of duodenal contents into the stomach could have implications in the pathogenesis of ulcers in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1133–1139)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine gastric secretory responses in horses treated with histamine and to determine the dose of histamine needed to elicit maximal gastric secretion.


6 adult horses with an indwelling gastric cannula.


Gastric contents were collected in 15-minute periods, and volume, pH, hydrogen ion concentration, hydrogen ion output, sodium concentration, and sodium output were determined. Values were determined without any treatment (baseline), after administration of pyrilamine maleate (1 mg/kg of body weight, IV, given during a 15-minute period), and during 1-hour infusions of histamine at 3 rates (7.5, 15, and 30 μg/kg/h, IV).


Volume and hydrogen ion concentration of gastric contents and hydrogen ion output were significantly increased, compared with baseline values, during histamine infusion. Mean hydrogen ion concentration and hydrogen ion output were significantly greater during infusion of histamine at a rate of 15 or 30 μg/kg/h than at a rate of 7.5 μg/kg/h. Sodium concentration was significantly decreased, compared with baseline value, during histamine infusion, but sodium output was unchanged.


Histamine at doses of 15 and 30 μg/kg/h, IV stimulated maximal gastric secretion in horses. Histamine appeared to induce only parietal secretion.

Clinical Relevance

This study provides additional information related to equine gastric physiology, which may benefit further understanding of the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1303–1306)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


On September 30, 2016, the US National Veterinary Services Laboratory confirmed an autochthonous case of New World screwworm infestation in a Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) from Big Pine Key, Fla. This case marked the first identification of a sustained and reproducing population of New World screwworm flies in the United States since 1966. Multiple federal, state, and local government agencies collaborated to initiate a response to the outbreak. Efforts were successful in eradicating the flies from Florida.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Case Description—A 7-year-old Quarter Horse gelding was hospitalized in Ocala, Fla, because of lethargy, fever, anorexia, and swelling of distal aspects of the limbs. A tentative diagnosis of equine piroplasmosis (EP) was made on the basis of examination of a blood smear. The case was reported to the Florida State Veterinarian, and infection with Babesia equi was confirmed. The subsequent investigation included quarantine and testing of potentially exposed horses for B equi and Babesia caballi infections, tick surveillance, and owner-agent interviews.

Clinical Findings—210 horses on 25 premises were tested for infection with EP pathogens. Twenty B equi–infected horses on 7 premises were identified; no horses tested positive for B caballi. Seven horses, including the index case, had clinical findings consistent with EP Dermacentor variabilis was considered the only potential tick vector for B equi collected, and all D variabilis specimens tested negative for Babesia organisms via PCR assay. Results of the epidemiological investigation suggested that B equi was spread by use of shared needles and possibly blood transfusions. All horses that tested positive were involved in nonsanctioned Quarter Horse racing, and management practices were thought to pose substantial risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens.

Treatment and Outcome—Final outcome of B equi–infected horses was euthanasia, death from undetermined causes, or shipment to a US federal research facility.

Clinical Relevance—This investigation highlights the importance of collaboration between private veterinary practitioners, state veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and regulatory officials in the recognition, containment, and eradication of foreign animal disease.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association