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Objective—To systematically review the scientific literature to identify, assess the quality of, and determine outcomes of studies conducted to evaluate the use of pheromones for treatment of undesirable behavior in cats and dogs.
Study Population—Reports of prospective studies published from January 1998 through December 2008.
Procedures—The MEDLINE and CAB Abstracts databases were searched with the following key terms: dog OR dogs OR canine OR cat OR cats OR feline AND pheromone OR synthetic pheromone OR facial pheromone OR appeasing pheromone. A date limit was set from 1998 through 2008. Identified reports for dogs (n = 7) and cats (7) were systematically reviewed.
Results—Studies provided insufficient evidence of the effectiveness of feline facial pheromone for management of idiopathic cystitis or calming cats during catheterization and lack of support for reducing stress in hospitalized cats. Only 1 study yielded sufficient evidence that dog-appeasing pheromone reduces fear or anxiety in dogs during training. Six studies yielded insufficient evidence of the effectiveness of dog-appeasing pheromone for treatment of noise phobia (2 reports), travel-related problems, fear or anxiety in the veterinary clinic, and stress- and fear-related behavior in shelter dogs as well as vocalizing and house soiling in recently adopted puppies.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—11 of the 14 reports reviewed provided insufficient evidence and 1 provided lack of support for effectiveness of pheromones for the treatment of undesirable behavior in cats and dogs.
Objective—To determine the frequency of nonspecific clinical signs in dogs with separation anxiety, thunderstorm phobia, noise phobia, or any combination of these conditions and determine whether these conditions are associated in dogs.
Procedure—Diagnoses were established using specific criteria. Owners of dogs completed a questionnaire on how frequently their dogs exhibited destructive behavior, urination, defecation, vocalization, and salivation when the owners were absent and the types and frequency of reactions to thunderstorms, fireworks, and other noises.
Results—Associations of the 3 conditions and of various nonspecific clinical signs within and between diagnoses were nonrandom. The probability that a dog would have separation anxiety given that it had noise phobia was high (0.88) and approximately the same as the probability it would have separation anxiety given that it had thunderstorm phobia (0.86). However, the probability that a dog would have noise phobia given that it had separation anxiety (0.63) was higher than the probability that it would have thunderstorm phobia given that it had separation anxiety (0.52). The probability that a dog would have noise phobia given that it had thunderstorm phobia (0.90) was not equivalent to the converse (0.76).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that dogs with any of these conditions should be screened for the others. Interactions among these conditions are important in the assessment and treatment of dogs with > 1 of these conditions. Responses to noise were different from those to thunderstorms, possibly because of the unpredictability and uncertainty of thunderstorms. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:467–473)
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of trazodone and its effect on the activity of domestic pigeons (Columba livia).
ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult male domestic pigeons.
PROCEDURES: During the first of 3 experiments, birds received orally administered trazodone at doses ranging from 3 to 30 mg/kg to determine the dose for subsequent experiments. During the second experiment, each bird received 1 dose of trazodone (30 mg/kg, PO). Blood was collected for determination of plasma trazodone concentration before and at predetermined times for 24 hours after drug administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis. During experiment 3, birds were instrumented with ultralightweight accelerometers and received orally administered trazodone (30 mg/kg) or an equal volume of water twice at a 48-hour interval. Activity of birds was monitored for 24 hours after administration of each treatment.
RESULTS: No adverse effects were observed. Mean ± SD terminal half-life of trazodone was 5.65 ± 1.75 hours. Plasma trazodone concentrations remained > 0.130 μg/mL for approximately 20 hours. Trazodone did not affect the activity of birds during the first 2 and 15 hours after administration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that oral administration of 1 dose (30 mg/kg) of trazodone to healthy pigeons was safe and resulted in plasma drug concentrations that were similar to those considered therapeutic in humans and dogs for up to 20 hours. Further research is necessary to characterize the pharmacokinetics for repeated doses as well as the clinical effects of trazodone in birds with behavior problems.
Objective—To develop a computer-assisted image analysis procedure for quantitation of neovascularization in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens of thyroid gland tissue from dogs with and without thyroid gland neoplasia.
Sample Population—47 thyroid gland carcinomas, 8 thyroid gland adenomas, and 8 specimens of thyroid tissue from dogs without thyroid gland abnormalities (normal).
Procedure—Serial tissue sections were prepared and stained with antibodies against human CD31 or factor VIII-related antigen (factor VIII-rag). The areas of highest vascularity were identified in CD31- stained sections, and corresponding areas were then identified in factor VIII-rag-stained sections. Image analysis was used to calculate the total vascular density in each section, and neovascularization, expressed as a percentage, was determined as the absolute value of the total vascular density derived from factor VIII-rag-stained sections minus the vascular density derived from CD31-stained sections.
Results—Mean vascular density of thyroid gland carcinomas derived from CD31-stained sections was significantly greater than density derived from factor VIII-rag-stained sections. This incremental difference was presumed to represent degree of neovascularization. However, significant differences were not detected between vascular densities derived from CD31 and factor VIII-rag-stained sections for either normal thyroid gland tissue or thyroid gland adenomas. No significant correlations were found between vascular density in thyroid gland carcinomas and survival time following surgery.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A computerassisted image analysis method was developed for quantifying neovascularization in thyroid gland tumors of dogs. This method may allow identification of dogs with tumors that are most likely to respond to treatment with novel antiangiogenesis agents. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:363–369)