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Objective

To compare analgesic and adverse effects of ketoprofen and carprofen when used to control pain associated with elective orthopedic surgeries in dogs.

Design

Prospective randomized clinical trial.

Animals

93 client-owned dogs: 46 undergoing reconstruction of the cranial cruciate ligament, 47 undergoing femoral head and neck excision, and 15 control dogs anesthetized for radiographic procedures.

Procedure

Dogs undergoing surgery were randomly given ketoprofen, carprofen, or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, SC, prior to surgery. Pain score and serum cortisol concentration were recorded for 12 hours after surgery for all dogs. When pain score was ≥ 7, oxymorphone was administered IM. Bleeding time was measured prior to and during surgery.

Results

The proportion of dogs that required oxymorphone was significantly higher for the carprofen and placebo groups than for the ketoprofen group. Pain score for the placebo group was significantly higher than for the ketoprofen and carprofen groups, 2,8, and 9 hours after surgery. Cortisol concentration was significantly higher for the placebo group than for the carprofen group at 4 and 6 hours after surgery. Significant differences were not detected between ketoprofen and carprofen groups with respect to pain score and cortisol concentration. Bleeding time was significantly longer for the ketoprofen group than for the other groups during surgery. One dog treated with ketoprofen developed a hematoma at the surgical site.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Ketoprofen and carprofen given prior to surgery were effective for postoperative pain relief in dogs. However, ketoprofen should not be used when noncompressible bleeding may be a problem. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1105–1110)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine variations in minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane and analgesic and cardiorespiratory effects of lumbosacral epidural administration of 0.25 mg of butorphanol/kg of body weight in dogs.

Animals

16 healthy male dogs.

Procedure

Dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane alone. Eight dogs received butorphanol (group B) and the others an equal volume of isotonic saline solution (group S) administered by a catheter inserted in the lumbosacral epidural space. Isoflurane MAC was determined before and 30 minutes after the epidural injection, along with noxious stimulation to the fore- and hind limbs. Cardiorespiratory variables were recorded prior to and until 120 minutes after epidural administration. At that time, isoflurane anesthesia was ended, and nociception (toe pinch and pin-prick responses) was evaluated for 7 hours. Dogs were observed for 3 days to determine presence of neurologic side effects.

Results

For group-B dogs, isoflurane MAC decreased by 31 ± 8.6% after butorphanol was administered. Cutaneous insensitivity (to pin-prick nociceptive test) persisted for 3 hours after the end of isoflurane anesthesia in group-B dogs. No response was observed to toe pinch stimulation for 80 minutes after anesthesia.

Conclusions

Epidural administration of 0.25 mg of butorphanol/kg in dogs was safe; minimal cardiorespiratory and no neurologic side effects were observed, and analgesia and an isoflurane-sparing effect were apparent.

Clinical Relevance

The short duration of action of epidurally administered butorphanol limits its value for clinical practice. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1478-1482)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To evaluate the cardiovascular and respiratory effects of buprenorphine administered intravenously in clinically normal horses and horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Animals

5 clinically normal horses and 5 horses with COPD that were in partial clinical remission (period A) or were having an acute attack of airway obstruction (period B).

Procedures

Pulmonary function testing, arterial blood gas analysis, and arterial blood pressure measurements were performed before and after a single intravenous bolus of buprenorphine (3 μg/kg of body weight). Respiratory rate (f), tidal volume (VT), expiratory-to-inspiratory time ratio (TE/TI), minute expiratory ventilation (VE), maximal change in transpulmonary pressure (ΔPL), dynamic compliance (Cdyn), and pulmonary resistance (RL) were calculated with a pulmonary function computer. Heart rate (HR) and systolic (SABP), diastolic (DABP), and mean arterial blood pressures (MABP) were measured.

Results

At baseline, COPD horses in period A had decreased Cdyn and increased f, VE, PL, and HR, whereas COPD horses in period B had decreased TE/TI and Cdyn, arterial blood pH, and Po2, and increased f, vE, ΔPL, and RL, compared with clinically normal horses. After drug administration, SABP, DABP, and MABP increased in all horses, f and VE increased in clinically normal horses, and Pao2 decreased within 60 minutes in horses with COPD.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

Buprenorphine can induce excitement in unsedated horses or horses that do not have signs of pain, but does not seem to induce severe respiratory depression or adverse cardiovascular effects in clinically normal horses or those with COPD. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1287–1291)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether postoperative administration of ketoprofen or carprofen had any effects on short- or long-term results of femoral head and neck excision (FHNE) in dogs.

Design—Prospective randomized controlled trial.

Animals—40 client-owned, large-breed dogs undergoing FHNE and 15 healthy large-breed dogs used as controls for hip joint angle measurements and force plate analyses.

Procedure—Dogs undergoing FHNE were treated with ketoprofen, carprofen, or a placebo for 21 days after surgery. Hip joint abduction and extension angles were measured at the end of surgery and 120 days later. Lameness scores were assigned, and force plate analyses were performed on days 3, 15, and 120.

Results—There were no significant differences among treatment groups in regard to hip joint angles or lameness scores. Force plate analysis revealed that dogs in all 3 treatment groups bore consistently less weight on the operated limb than did control dogs for the duration of the study. Dogs receiving ketoprofen had greater peak propulsive force at a walk on day 3 and greater peak vertical force at a walk on day 15 than did dogs receiving the placebo. Treatment of an acute condition and preservation of the lesser trochanter, but not postoperative analgesic administration, were positively associated with ground reaction forces on day 120. Owners of 12 of 31 dogs indicated that the dog's gait worsened for a few days after discontinuation of analgesic administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of ketoprofen or carprofen after surgery was not associated with long-term results of FHNE, probably because of the impact of other factors. Because some owners noticed worsening of the lameness following cessation of analgesic administration in the present study, it is possible that longer administration would have improved long-term results. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1006–1012)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To compare analgesic effects of ketoprofen, oxymorphone hydrochloride, and butorphanol when used to control postoperative pain associated with elective orthopedic surgery in dogs.

Design—

Prospective randomized clinical trial.

Animals—

70 dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery on a hind limb.

Procedure—

Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 postoperative analgesic treatment groups: ketoprofen alone, oxymorphone alone, butorphanol alone, or ketoprofen-oxymorphone. Drugs were given IM at the end of anesthesia. Pain score, sedation score, arterial blood pressures, arterial blood gas partial pressures, and plasma Cortisol concentration were measured for 12 hours after surgery. If the pain score was ≥ 9, supplemental oxymorphone was administered IM.

Results—

The proportion of dogs that did not require supplemental treatment with oxymorphone was significantly higher for the ketoprofen alone and ketoprofen-oxymorphone groups than for the oxymorphone alone group. During the first hour after surgery, pain score was lower for oxymorphone alone and ketoprofen-oxymorphone groups than for ketoprofen or butorphanol alone groups. Significant differences were not detected among groups in regard to pain score 2 and 3 hours after surgery or in regard to arterial blood pressures at any time. From 4 to 12 hours after surgery, pain score was significantly lower for the ketoprofen alone group than for other groups. Plasma Cortisol concentration was significantly higher for the oxymorphone alone group 6 and 8 hours after surgery, compared with other groups.

Clinical Implications—

Except during the first hour after surgery, dogs given ketoprofen alone after elective orthopedic surgery had a greater level of, and longer-lasting, analgesia than did dogs given oxymorphone or butorphanol alone. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:438–444)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association