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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of manual tongue protrusion on the dimensions of the hyoid apparatus, nasopharynx, and oropharynx in anesthetized horses.

Animals—5 adult horses.

Procedure—Horses were anesthetized and positioned in sternal recumbency for 2 sequential computed tomographic (CT) scans. Images were acquired with the tongue in a natural position inside the mouth. Then, the tongue was pulled rostrally and secured, and a second CT scan was performed. Dorsoventral length of the hyoid apparatus and angles of the basisphenoid, basihyoid, and ceratohyoid were measured on 3-dimensional reconstructed CT images. Cross-sectional diameters and areas of the nasopharynx and oropharynx were determined on reformatted images in the transverse and longitudinal planes, using osseous landmarks for consistency. Results were tested between the 2 groups to determine significant differences.

Results—We were unable to detect a significant difference between any of the lengths or angles of the hyoid apparatus measured with or without rostral protrusion of the tongue. Similarly, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal diameters and cross-sectional areas were not significantly different with or without rostral protrusion of the tongue.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tying the tongue rostrally out of a horse's mouth did not influence the position of the hyoid apparatus or dimensions of the nasopharynx or oropharynx in anesthetized horses. Currently, no data suggest that application of a tongue-tie is effective for maintaining stability and patency of the nasopharyngeal or orolaryngeal airways in horses during races. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1865–1869)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop a method for arthrocentesis of the temporomandibular joint in adult horses.

Animals—7 equine cadaver heads and 6 clinically normal adult horses.

Procedure—Fluoroscopy, contrast radiography, and computed tomography were used on cadaver specimens to locate the temporomandibular joint, identify externally palpable landmarks for joint access, guide needle placement into the joint, and illustrate regional anatomy. The arthrocentesis technique was performed on 6 live healthy adult horses to determine efficacy and safety of this procedure.

Results—Externally palpable structures were identified as landmarks for temporomandibular arthrocentesis, including the lateral border of the condylar process of the mandible, the zygomatic process of the temporal bone, and the lateral pericapsular fat pad. Arthrocentesis was successful in all 6 joints in the live horses, and no complications developed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The technique identified will improve the ability to examine and treat the temporomandibular joint in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:729–735).

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe the vascular anatomy of the palmar digital artery and its major branches in the equine foot and to quantify the diameter of these vessels by use of digital angiograms.

Sample Population—6 thoracic limbs obtained from 6 horses.

Procedure—Distal portions of each limb were perfused with aerated Krebs-Henseleit solution. Digital angiograms were acquired in standing and lateral recumbent positions, following an intra-arterial injection of iopamidol. Select vessels were measured on radiographic views, and values were corrected for magnification.

Results—The palmar digital artery tapered from 2.28 mm at the coronary region to 1.61 mm at the entrance to the solar canal, and the major arterial branches ranged in diameter from 0.71 to 1.42 mm in the standing position.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Digital angiography is useful for imaging small vessels, but penumbra limits the image resolution of the macrovasculature of the foot. The palmarodorsal projection is more useful for evaluation of the terminal arch and solar branches, but 2 projections are necessary for a thorough examination of the foot. Image magnification, position of horse, and vascular response to contrast medium must be considered in the quantitative assessment of vessel diameter. Digital angiography may be performed in clinical cases and research models for examination of vascular perfusion of the distal portion of the limb. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:255–259)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Development of an arthroscopic approach to the caudal pouches of the equine stifle has been necessary because cranial approaches do not allow access to articular lesions in the caudal aspect of the joint. Therefore, the anatomy of the caudal region was examined in 52 cadaver limbs by use of gross dissection (29), x-ray-computed tomography (6), fluoroscopy (8), or arthroscopy (9). Additionally, using arthroscopic techniques developed in equine cadaver limbs, 3 stifles from 2 anesthetized horses were arthroscopically explored. Fluoroscopy was used to verify needle placement for joint injection and filling patterns of each femorotibial joint. The medial femorotibial joint sac (n = 4) held a mean ± sd 41.67 ± 5.77 ml of injection fluid, and the lateral femorotibial joint sac (n = 4) held a mean 61.67 ± 2.89 ml of injection fluid. Vital structures that inadvertently could be damaged during arthroscopy of the caudal pouches of the stifle included the peroneal nerve (located approx 7 cm caudal to the lateral collateral ligament), the popliteal artery and vein (situated directly between the medial and lateral femoral condyles), and the lateral femoral condyle (most often traumatized during arthroscopy). The tendon of the popliteus muscle, which is contiguous with the joint capsule of the caudal pouch of the lateral femorotibial joint, made arthroscopic exploration of this pouch particularly difficult.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To define the vertical position of the patella in clinically normal large-breed dogs.

Sample Population—Cadavers of 13 clinically normal large-breed dog.

Procedure—Both hind limbs were harvested with intact stifle joints and mounted on a positioning device that allowed full range of motion of the stifle joint. Lateral radiographic views were obtained with the stifle joints positioned at each of 5 angles (148°, 130°, 113°, 96°, and 75°). Vertical position of the patella through a range of motion was depicted on a graph of mean stifle angle versus corresponding mean proximal patellar position (PPP) and distal patellar position (DPP) relative to the femoral trochlea for each dog. Ratio of length of the patellar ligament to length of the patella (L:P) was determined for each dog. Overall mean, SD, and 95% confidence intervals for L:P were calculated for all dogs.

Results—Evaluation of vertical position of the patella through a range of motion revealed a nearly linear relationship between joint angle and PPP and joint angle and DPP. Evaluation of L:P results did not reveal significant differences between limbs (left or right) or among joint angles. Overall mean ± SD L:P for all dogs was 1.68 ± 0.18 (95% confidence interval, 1.33 to 2.03).

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The L:P proved to be a repeatable measurement of vertical patellar position, which is independent of stifle angles from 75° to 148°. This measurement could be used as a quantitative method for diagnosing patella alta and patella baja in large-breed dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:42–46)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To study the effect of unilateral synovitis in the distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints on locomotion, including the compensating effects within and between limbs.

Animals—4 clinically normal horses.

Procedure—Gait analyses including kinematics, force plate, and inverse dynamic analysis were performed at the trot before lameness, after which synovitis was induced by injecting endotoxin into the right distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints. Gait analyses were repeated 24 to 30 hours later during lameness. Differences between the stride variables during the 2 conditions (lame and sound) were identified.

Results—Tarsal joint range of motion, peak vertical force, and vertical impulse were decreased during lameness. Mechanical deficits included a decrease in negative work performed by the tarsal extensors during the early stance phase and a decrease in positive work by the tarsal extensors during push off. No compensatory changes in work were performed by other joints within the lame hind limb during the stance phase. Vertical impulse in the diagonal forelimb decreased, but there were no significant changes in forces or impulses in the ipsilateral forelimb or contralateral hind limb.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that horses are able to manage mild, unilateral hind limb lameness by reducing the airborne phase of the stride rather than by increased loading of the compensating limbs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1491–1495)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of nephrotomy on renal function in clinically normal cats.

Animals—20 specific-pathogen-free, 9- to 11-month old female mixed-breed cats.

Procedure—Serum chemistry analyses, CBC determinations, urinalyses, microbiologic urine cultures, renal ultrasonography, abdominal radiography, and single-kidney and total glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determinations by use of renal scintigraphy and measurements of plasma disappearance of technetium 99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid were performed before surgery and at 3, 12, 26, 52, and 78 weeks after surgery in 10 cats that underwent unilateral nephrotomy and in 10 control cats that underwent a sham surgical procedure.

Results—Two cats (1 from each group) did not complete the study, and their data were eliminated from analyses. Unilateral nephrotomy resulted in a 10% to 20% reduction in mean single-kidney GFR, compared with that of nephrotomy contralateral control kidneys. However, mean total GFR in nephrotomy-group cats was not significantly different from that of shamgroup cats. Over the 78 weeks of study, mean total GFR declined 34% and 40% in nephrotomy- and sham-group cats, respectively. Adverse events associated with nephrotomy included persistent microscopic hematuria, renal pelvis hyperechogenicity with distant shadowing on ultrasonographic evaluation, dilatation of renal pelves, and hydronephrosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Nephrotomy in normal functioning feline kidneys results in a modest relative reduction in renal function, compared with contralateral kidney controls, but has minimal effect on total GFR when compared with sham-operated control cats. However, any detrimental effects of nephrotomy may be magnified in cats with diseased kidneys, which may have little or no capacity for repair or compensation. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1400–1407)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association