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Objective

To measure ionized calcium concentration in plasma from cats with urethral obstruction and to correlate these values with results of clinical biochemical analyses and physical examinations.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

24 male cats.

Procedure

Blood samples were obtained from each cat on admission, and PCV, pH, and concentrations of ionized calcium, total calcium, glucose, total solids, sodium, potassium, BUN, creatinine, chloride, magnesium, albumin, and phosphorus were determined. Mentation, tissue perfusion, and ECG recordings were also assessed.

Results

18 (75%) cats had low ionized calcium concentrations (reference range, 2.4 to 2.8 mEq/L). Hypocalcemia was considered mild (2.0 to 2.36 mEq/L) in 9 (37.5%) cats, moderate (1.6 to 1.98 mEq/L) in 6 (25%), and severe (< 1.6 mEq/L) in 3 (12.5%). Significant positive correlations were found between ionized calcium concentration and heart rate, pH, and concentrations of sodium, chloride, and total calcium. Significant negative correlations were found between ionized calcium concentration and concentrations of potassium, BUN, creatinine, and phosphorus.

Clinical Implications

Most cats with urethral obstruction had a low concentration of ionized calcium. This may contribute to cardiac electrical and mechanical dysfunction in some severely affected cats. Although effects of IV administration of calcium were not evaluated, results of this study strengthen the rationale for its use in cats with urethral obstruction. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1392–1395)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate a point-of-care coagulation analyzer (PCCA) in dogs with coagulopathies and healthy dogs.

Animals—27 healthy and 32 diseased dogs with and without evidence of bleeding.

Procedure—Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and activated clotting time (ACT) were determined, using a PCCA and standard methods.

Results—Using the PCCA, mean (± SD) PT of citrated whole blood (CWB) from healthy dogs was 14.5 ± 1.2 seconds, whereas PT of nonanticoagulated whole blood (NAWB) was 10.4 ± 0.5 seconds. Activated partial thromboplastin time using CWB was 86.4 ± 6.9 seconds, whereas aPTT was 71.2 ± 6.7 seconds using NAWB. Reference ranges for PT and aPTT using CWB were 12.2 to 16.8 seconds and 72.5 to 100.3 seconds, respectively. Activated clotting time in NAWB was 71 ± 11.8 seconds. Agreement with standard PT and aPTT methods using citrated plasma was good (overall agreement was 93% for PT and 87.5% for aPTT in CWB). Comparing CWB by the PCCA and conventional coagulation methods using citrated plasma, sensitivity and specificity were 85.7 and 95.5% for PT and 100 and 82.9% for aPTT, respectively. Overall agreement between the PCCA using NAWB and the clinical laboratory was 73% for PT and 88% for aPTT. Using NAWB for the PCCA and citrated plasma for conventional methods, sensitivity and specificity was 85.7 and 68.4% for PT and 86.7 and 88.9% for aPTT, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The PCCA detected intrinsic, extrinsic, and common pathway abnormalities in a similar fashion to clinical laboratory tests. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1455–1460)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine relationships between plasma lactate concentration and gastric necrosis and between plasma lactate concentration and outcome for dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

102 dogs.

Procedure

Information on signalment, history, plasma lactate concentration, medical and surgical treatment, cost of hospitalization, and outcome was retrieved from medical records.

Results

69 of 70 (99%) dogs with plasma lactate concentration < 6.0 mmol/L survived, compared with 18 of 31 (58%) dogs with plasma lactate concentration > 6.0 mmol/L (1 dog euthanatized for economic reasons was not included). Gastric necrosis was identified in 38 (37%) dogs. Median plasma lactate concentration in dogs with gastric necrosis (6.6 mmol/L) was significantly higher than concentration in dogs without gastric necrosis (3.3 mmol/L). Specificity and sensitivity of using plasma lactate concentration (with a cutoff of 6.0 mmol/L) to predict which dogs had gastric necrosis were 88 and 61%, respectively. Sixtytwo of 63 (98%) dogs without gastric necrosis survived, compared with 25 of 38 (66%) dogs with gastric necrosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Preoperative plasma lactate concentration was a good predictor of gastric necrosis and outcome for dogs with GDV. Preoperative measurement of plasma lactate concentration may assist in determining prognosis of dogs with GDV. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:49-52)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To measure serum α1-antitrypsin (α1AT) concentration in dogs with histologically confirmed panniculitis to determine whether serum deficiency could cause or exacerbate panniculitis in dogs.

Design

Cross-sectional, descriptive study.

Animals

9 dogs (5 with multiple lesions and 4 with solitary lesions).

Procedure

Serum samples were obtained by means of cephalic or jugular venipuncture and frozen at −20 C until assayed. Serum α1AT concentration was measured by means of radial gel immunodiffusion.

Results

In all dogs, serum α1AT concentration was within the previously established reference range.

Clinical Implications

In the small number of dogs studied, panniculitis was not associated with serum α1AT deficiency. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1582–1584)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

We performed a study to determine a reference range for serum α1-antitrypsin (α1 at) in dogs by specific immunoassay; to evaluate whether serum α1 at concentration varied with age, sex, or reproductive status in healthy dogs; and to investigate whether the serum α1 at concentration in hospitalized dogs differed from that of healthy, nonhospitalized dogs. Serum α1 at was quantitated by radial gel immunodiffusion for 60 healthy dogs and 311 hospitalized dogs. In healthy dogs, serum α1 at concentration was 2.33 ± 0.41 mg/ml (mean ± sd), yielding a reference range (mean ± 2 sd) of 1.51 to 3.15 mg/ml. A correlation was not found between serum α1 at concentration and age in healthy dogs. The serum α1 at concentration (mean ± sem mg/ml) was significantly higher in healthy, sexually intact females (2.64 ± 0.1) than in healthy, spayed females (2.22 ± 0.12; P < 0.004); healthy, sexually intact males (2.14 ± 0.1; P < 0.0006); and healthy, castrated males (2.25 ± 0.14; P < 0.02). Hospitalized, sexually intact females had a lower serum α1 at concentration (1.93 ± 0.07) than healthy, sexually intact females (2.64 ± 0.1; P < 0.0002). Likewise, the serum α1 at concentration in hospitalized, sexually intact males (1.92 ± 0.04) was less than in healthy, sexually intact males (2.14 ± 0.1; P < 0.04). A difference in α1 at concentration was not found between healthy and hospitalized, neutered dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of prednisone alone, compared with a combination of prednisone and vincristine, on platelet counts in bleeding dogs with severe primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (IMT).

Design—Prospective case study.

Animals—24 dogs with severe primary IMT.

Procedure—All dogs received immunosuppressive doses of prednisone (1.5 to 2 mg/kg [0.7 to 0.9 mg/lb] of body weight, PO, q 12 h). In addition, 12 dogs received a single dose of vincristine (0.02 mg/kg [0.01 mg/lb], IV). Platelet count, transfusion requirement, and outcome were monitored. A response was defined as an increase in platelet count to ≥ 40,000/µl. Dogs in the prednisone group that failed to respond received 1 dose of vincristine on day 7.

Results—Dogs that received prednisone and vincristine had a significantly faster increase in platelet count to ≥ 40,000/µl than dogs that received prednisone alone (mean ± SD, 4.9 ± 1.1 vs 6.8 ± 4.5 days, respectively). A similarly rapid response was observed in dogs that received vincristine on day 7 after treatment with prednisone alone failed. Furthermore, duration of hospitalization was reduced in the vincristine group, compared with the prednisone group (5.4 ± 0.3 vs 7.3 ± 0.5 days, respectively). No adverse effects attributable to vincristine were observed in any dog.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of combined vincristine and prednisone is associated with more rapid increase in platelet numbers and shortened duration of hospitalization in dogs with IMT, compared with use of prednisone alone. Early use of vincristine seems warranted in dogs with severe primary IMT. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002; 220:477–481)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the incidence of and risk factors for ventilatory failure in dogs undergoing surgery for treatment of cervical spinal disorders and to document ventilator management, clinical course, and long-term outcome of dogs that experienced ventilatory failure in association with cervical spinal disorders or their management.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—14 dogs.

Procedure—Dogs with cervical spinal disorders that required positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) were identified, and signalment, concurrent diseases, neurologic status at initial examination, clinical course, pulmonary function before, during, and after PPV, management techniques, complications, and outcome were recorded. Dogs that underwent surgery and required PPV were compared with dogs that underwent cervical spinal surgery during the same period that did not require PPV.

Results—14 dogs with cervical spinal disorders required PPV to treat hypoventilation, including 13 of 263 (4.9%) dogs that underwent surgery for cervical spinal disorders. Lesions between the second and fourth cervical vertebrae and treatment by means of a dorsal decompressive laminectomy were associated with a significantly increased risk of perioperative hypoventilation. Pulmonary gas exchange function was normal or nearly normal throughout the course of PPV in dogs that survived. Ten dogs survived, and 9 of the 10 regained neurologic function. All 9 dogs that regained neurologic function had deep pain perception on initial examination at the veterinary teaching hospital.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a small percentage of dogs with cervical spinal disorders may require perioperative ventilatory support. With prolonged PPV and aggressive management, a good outcome may be achieved in dogs similar to those described in the present study. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1598–1602).

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To characterize the variation in plasma lactate concentration among samples from commonly used blood sampling sites in conscious, healthy dogs.

Animals

60 healthy dogs.

Procedure

Cross-sectional study using a replicated Latin square design. Each dog was assigned to 1 of 6 groups (n = 10) representing all possible orders for 3 sites (cephalic vein, jugular vein, and femoral artery) used to obtain blood. Samples were analyzed immediately, by use of direct amperometry for pH, Po2, Pco2, glucose, and lactate concentration.

Results

Significant differences in plasma lactate concentrations were detected among blood samples from the cephalic vein (highest), femoral artery, and jugular vein (lowest). Mean plasma lactate concentration in the first sample obtained, irrespective of sampling site, was lower than in subsequent samples. Covariation was identified among plasma lactate concentration, pH, and Pco2, but correlation coefficients were low.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Plasma lactate concentrations differed among blood samples from various sites. A reference range for plasma lactate concentration was 0.3 to 2.5 mmol/L. Differences in plasma lactate concentrations among samples from various sites and with repeated sampling, in healthy dogs, are small. Use of the reference range may facilitate the clinical use of plasma lactate concentration in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1999; 60:521-524)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research