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  • Author or Editor: Devon W. Hague x
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A 4-year-old 1.18-kg (2.6-lb) spayed female Yorkshire Terrier was referred to the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital for neurologic evaluation. The dog had been losing vision and circling to the right for 6 months. The dog became ataxic and unable to right itself after falling 1 week prior to referral.

Clinical and Gross Findings

On neurologic examination, the dog had a left head turn and tilt, thoracolumbar kyphosis, and extensor rigidity of the pelvic limbs. The dog was nonambulatory and tetraparetic and would twist and roll (ie, alligator roll) to the left when attempting to stand. Placing responses

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare acoustic startle reflexes (ASRs) of healthy cats and cats with interstitial cystitis (IC).

Animals—28 healthy cats (11 males and 17 females) and 20 cats with IC (13 males and 7 females).

Procedures—To evaluate the effect of neutering on ASRs, ASRs in neutered and unneutered healthy cats were measured. To evaluate the effect of housing facility acclimation on ASRs in cats with IC, ASRs were measured in cats with IC within 1 month after arrival at the housing facility and again 2 to 3 months after arrival. To evaluate the effect of the environment on ASRs, ASRs were evaluated in all cats with and without IC after acclimation but before and then after environmental enrichment.

Results—Neutering led to a significant decrease in overall ASR in the healthy cats. Habituation to the housing facility resulted in a significant decrease in overall ASR of female but not male cats with IC. Environmental enrichment led to a significant decrease in ASR in cats with IC but not in healthy cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The magnitude of the ASR appeared to be sensitive to environmental conditions and affected by sex, both in healthy cats and cats with IC. It was also higher in cats with IC versus healthy cats, except when cats were housed in a highly enriched environment.

Impact for Human Medicine—Treatment approaches that include reduction of a patient's perception of environmental unpredictability may benefit humans with IC.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine the most common indications for cranial surgery and identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of complications and death in the perioperative period following cranial surgery.


150 dogs and 15 cats.


For this multi-institutional retrospective case series, medical records of dogs and cats that underwent cranial surgery at any of the 4 participating institutions between 1995 and 2016 were reviewed. Variables were evaluated included species, sex, age, neurolocalization, history of preoperative seizures, surgical approach, histological results, perioperative complications, and outcome. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess for risk factors for complications.


The most common neurolocalization was the forebrain (110/165 [66.7%]), with 94 (57.0%) animals having had seizures preoperatively. The rostrotentorial (116/165 [70.3%]) and caudotentorial (32/165 [19.4%]) surgical approaches were most commonly reported. The most common indication was the treatment of meningioma (75/142 [52.8%]). Complications arose in 58 of the 165 (35.2%) cases within 24 hours and in 86 (52.1%) cases 1 to 10 days postoperatively. Perioperative complications included hypotension (38/165 [23.0%]) and anemia (27/165 [16.4%]). During the postoperative period, the most common complications were neurologic deficits, seizures, postoperative anemia, and aspiration pneumonia. The mortality rate with death or euthanasia perioperatively or ≤ 10 days postoperatively was 14.5% (24/165). Long-term complications occurred in 65 of the 165 (39.4%) animals, with seizures and neurologic deficits being the most common.


Cranial surgery was performed most commonly for the removal of neoplastic lesions in dogs and cats, and most complications were not life-threatening.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association