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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To use ground reaction forces and related impulses as an objective measurement of limb function in the comparison of 1 extracapsular and 1 intracapsular surgical technique for repair of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs.


18 healthy dogs.


All dogs underwent force-plate analysis of gait prior to transection of the left cranial cruciate ligament. The dogs were randomly allotted to 3 groups. The ligamentous instability was corrected, using a modified retinacular imbrication technique (MRIT) in 1 group and an under-and-over technique in another group. No attempt was made to correct the ligamentous instability in a control group. Clinical grading of lameness and force-plate analysis of gait were performed at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks after surgery.


Peak vertical force and vertical, braking, and propulsion impulses were recorded for each limb at each time. The degree of clinical lameness was graded at each time.


Left hind limb peak vertical forces and vertical impulses were significantly decreased at all times after surgery in the control and under-and-over technique group, compared with values before surgery. Dogs of the MRIT group had improved by 20 weeks, with no significant differences between left hind limb peak vertical forces or vertical impulses recorded before surgery and at 20 weeks.


Peak vertical forces and vertical impulses in dogs undergoing MRIT repair after experimentally created cranial cruciate ligament rupture are not significantly different when values recorded for the operated limb at 20 weeks after surgery are compared with those recorded prior to surgery.(Am J Vet Res 1996;57:389-393)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Limb symmetry was evaluated by measuring ground reaction forces in 2 groups of normal-gaited dogs at a trot. Data were collected from 2 groups of 21 dogs trotted at dog/handler velocities of 1.25 to 1.55 m/s and 1.85 to 2.05 m/s, respectively. Of these dogs, 9 participated in both groups to allow comparison of data at both velocities. Additionally, 16 of the dogs in group 1 were measured in 2 directions of movement to determine whether directional dependence was present. Collected data were then applied to 3 described symmetry indices.

Each index was easy to calculate, but all had limitations. A major limitation was variation in magnitude of ground reaction forces measured between the different axes and the effect of this variation on precision of the derived indices. Vertical ground forces provided the most consistent symmetry indices, in part because of their large magnitude. The indices indicated that no dog had perfect right-to-left symmetry during a trotting gait. Statistical differences were not found in any of the measurements of directional dependence. Likewise, comparing symmetry data in dogs trotted at both velocities indicated no significant differences in any axis.

However, further analysis of the data revealed the actual amount that a variance attributable to right-left limb variation was negligible. Most of the variance was attributable to trial variation. Thus, the aforementioned indices, which use nonconsecutive footfall methods to evaluate limb symmetry, actually measure principally trial variation and not limb-to-limb variation.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research