Objective—To evaluate effects of 2 commercially available colostrum replacement products on serum IgG and total protein concentrations in dairy calves.
Design—Prospective clinical trial.
Animals—84 Holstein bull calves from a single dairy.
Procedures—Calves were randomly assigned to be given 4 quarts of colostrum (group 1; n = 21), 2 packages of a colostrum replacement product (product A; group 2; 21), 1 package of a different colostrum replacement product (product B; group 3; 21), or 2 packages of product B (group 4; 21). Treatments were given within 3 hours after birth, and blood samples were collected 24 hours later and submitted for determination of serum total protein and IgG concentrations.
Results—Group 1 calves had significantly higher serum total protein and IgG concentrations than did calves in the other 3 groups. However, the percentage of calves with adequate passive transfer (ie, serum IgG concentration > 1,000 mg/dL) was not significantly different among groups 1 (90%), 3 (81%), and 4 (95%). In contrast, only 10% of calves in group 2 had adequate passive transfer. It was predicted that calves fed product B that had serum total protein concentrations > 5.2 g/dL would have serum IgG concentrations > 1,000 mg/dL at least 90% of the time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that product B could be considered as an alternative to colostrum in dairy calves, but product A failed to routinely provide adequate serum IgG concentrations when fed according to label directions.
OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with strongyle infection and parasite reduction strategies associated with low strongyle fecal egg counts (FECs) in goats on farms in North Carolina.
DESIGN Cross-sectional study.
ANIMALS 631 adult goats on 52 farms in North Carolina.
PROCEDURES Participating farms were visited to collect fecal samples from goats and administer a survey regarding goat, environmental, and management factors. The McMaster technique was used to determine strongyle FEC for each sample. Univariate followed by multivariate modeling was performed to identify factors associated with FEC at the farm and individual goat level.
RESULTS Multivariate analysis controlling for several other factors and multiple comparisons revealed that farms on which no anthelmintic drugs had ever been used had the lowest mean FECs, compared with farms on which specific strategies for parasite control were used; no other variables were significant. For individual goat FEC, significant variables included goat breed, breed type, owner-defined purpose, daily dietary protein intake, and fecal coccidia score. In particular, companion goats (vs meat or dairy goats) had the lowest FECs. Higher dietary protein intake and coccidia scores were associated with higher FECs. Among females, goats that had kidded in the last 6 weeks had the highest FECs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Various factors were identified that appeared to influence the likelihood of strongyle infection in goats. The finding that farms with no history of anthelmintic use had the lowest mean FECs suggested that a focus on preventative measures could reduce the need for anthelmintic drugs and, by extension, lessen the opportunity for the development of anthelmintic resistance.
Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of and optimize a
commercially available culture system for sensitive
and specific in-clinic culture of Tritrichomonas foetus
from cat feces.
Sample Population—Samples of freshly voided
feces from 117 purebred cats and pure cultures of
T foetus obtained from a cat with chronic diarrhea.
Procedure—Optimal conditions for use of the culture
system, such as quantity of fecal inoculum (0.025 to
0.2 g) and cultivation temperature (25 or 37°C [98.6 or
77.0°F]), were determined. Specificity of the system
was examined by attempted culture of Giardia lamblia
and Pentatrichomonas hominis. Sensitivity of the system
to detect T foetus was determined by inoculation
of culture system pouches with serially diluted T foetus suspensions
with and without feces.
Results—Detection limit of the culture system was 1
and 1,000 T foetus organisms without and with feces
from cats, respectively. Optimal fecal inoculum was
< 0.1 g of feces. At 37°C, cultures yielded positive results
in 24 hours; organisms remained viable for 1 to 6 days,
and bacterial overgrowth was common. At 25°C, cultures
yielded positive results in 1 to 11 days; organisms were
long-lived, and bacterial overgrowth was uncommon.
Neither G lamblia or P hominis survived in the culture system.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The culture
system was sensitive and specific for culture of
T foetus in feces of cats. Performance was optimal
when test kits were inoculated with ≤ 0.1 g of freshly
voided feces and cultured at 25°C. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine the long-term outcome of
cats infected with Tritrichomonas foetus and identify
treatment and management strategies influencing
resolution of infection or associated diarrhea.
Sample Population—26 cats with T foetus-associated
diarrhea at least 22 months prior to the study.
Procedure—A standardized survey regarding clinical
course and management was administered to owners
of cats with T foetus infection and associated diarrhea.
Fecal samples were obtained from each cat; the
presence of T foetus was assessed via microscopic
examination of smears, culture in commercial media,
and polymerase chain reaction amplification of T foetus rDNA
involving species-specific primers.
Results—Survey responses were obtained from owners
of all 26 cats. Twenty-three cats had complete resolution
of diarrhea a median of 9 months after onset.
Analysis of fecal samples obtained from 22 cats
revealed persistent T foetus infection in 12, with a
median of 39 months after resolution of diarrhea.
History of implementation of a dietary change, treatment
with paromomycin, or higher numbers of cats in
the household was associated with significantly longer
duration of time to resolution of diarrhea.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested
chronic T foetus-associated diarrhea in most
cats is likely to resolve spontaneously within 2 years
of onset. Chronic infection with T foetus(without clinical
signs) after resolution of diarrhea appears to be
common. Although often temporarily effective in
decreasing severity of diarrhea, attempts to treat cats
with T foetus infection may result in prolongation of
time to resolution of diarrhea. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Extralabel drug use (ELDU) is defined as the use of an FDA-approved medication in a manner that differs from what is provided on the label of the medication.1 Administration of the medication to a different species or at a different dose, volume, route, duration, indication, or frequency than indicated on the label is considered ELDU. Extralabel drug use also requires an extended withdrawal period to avoid violative residues, and practitioners can get advice on withdrawal intervals (WDIs) following ELDU from the Food Animal Residue Avoidance and Depletion Program (FARAD). Penicillin is one of the most commonly used