Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for

  • Author or Editor: Derek M. Foster x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with strongyle infection and parasite reduction strategies associated with low strongyle fecal egg counts (FECs) in goats on farms in North Carolina.

DESIGN Cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS 631 adult goats on 52 farms in North Carolina.

PROCEDURES Participating farms were visited to collect fecal samples from goats and administer a survey regarding goat, environmental, and management factors. The McMaster technique was used to determine strongyle FEC for each sample. Univariate followed by multivariate modeling was performed to identify factors associated with FEC at the farm and individual goat level.

RESULTS Multivariate analysis controlling for several other factors and multiple comparisons revealed that farms on which no anthelmintic drugs had ever been used had the lowest mean FECs, compared with farms on which specific strategies for parasite control were used; no other variables were significant. For individual goat FEC, significant variables included goat breed, breed type, owner-defined purpose, daily dietary protein intake, and fecal coccidia score. In particular, companion goats (vs meat or dairy goats) had the lowest FECs. Higher dietary protein intake and coccidia scores were associated with higher FECs. Among females, goats that had kidded in the last 6 weeks had the highest FECs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Various factors were identified that appeared to influence the likelihood of strongyle infection in goats. The finding that farms with no history of anthelmintic use had the lowest mean FECs suggested that a focus on preventative measures could reduce the need for anthelmintic drugs and, by extension, lessen the opportunity for the development of anthelmintic resistance.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of 2 commercially available colostrum replacement products on serum IgG and total protein concentrations in dairy calves.

Design—Prospective clinical trial.

Animals—84 Holstein bull calves from a single dairy.

Procedures—Calves were randomly assigned to be given 4 quarts of colostrum (group 1; n = 21), 2 packages of a colostrum replacement product (product A; group 2; 21), 1 package of a different colostrum replacement product (product B; group 3; 21), or 2 packages of product B (group 4; 21). Treatments were given within 3 hours after birth, and blood samples were collected 24 hours later and submitted for determination of serum total protein and IgG concentrations.

Results—Group 1 calves had significantly higher serum total protein and IgG concentrations than did calves in the other 3 groups. However, the percentage of calves with adequate passive transfer (ie, serum IgG concentration > 1,000 mg/dL) was not significantly different among groups 1 (90%), 3 (81%), and 4 (95%). In contrast, only 10% of calves in group 2 had adequate passive transfer. It was predicted that calves fed product B that had serum total protein concentrations > 5.2 g/dL would have serum IgG concentrations > 1,000 mg/dL at least 90% of the time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that product B could be considered as an alternative to colostrum in dairy calves, but product A failed to routinely provide adequate serum IgG concentrations when fed according to label directions.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of and optimize a commercially available culture system for sensitive and specific in-clinic culture of Tritrichomonas foetus from cat feces.

Design—Prospective study.

Sample Population—Samples of freshly voided feces from 117 purebred cats and pure cultures of T foetus obtained from a cat with chronic diarrhea.

Procedure—Optimal conditions for use of the culture system, such as quantity of fecal inoculum (0.025 to 0.2 g) and cultivation temperature (25 or 37°C [98.6 or 77.0°F]), were determined. Specificity of the system was examined by attempted culture of Giardia lamblia and Pentatrichomonas hominis. Sensitivity of the system to detect T foetus was determined by inoculation of culture system pouches with serially diluted T foetus suspensions with and without feces.

Results—Detection limit of the culture system was 1 and 1,000 T foetus organisms without and with feces from cats, respectively. Optimal fecal inoculum was < 0.1 g of feces. At 37°C, cultures yielded positive results in 24 hours; organisms remained viable for 1 to 6 days, and bacterial overgrowth was common. At 25°C, cultures yielded positive results in 1 to 11 days; organisms were long-lived, and bacterial overgrowth was uncommon. Neither G lamblia or P hominis survived in the culture system.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The culture system was sensitive and specific for culture of T foetus in feces of cats. Performance was optimal when test kits were inoculated with ≤ 0.1 g of freshly voided feces and cultured at 25°C. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1376–1379)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the long-term outcome of cats infected with Tritrichomonas foetus and identify treatment and management strategies influencing resolution of infection or associated diarrhea.

Design—Prospective study.

Sample Population—26 cats with T foetus-associated diarrhea at least 22 months prior to the study.

Procedure—A standardized survey regarding clinical course and management was administered to owners of cats with T foetus infection and associated diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from each cat; the presence of T foetus was assessed via microscopic examination of smears, culture in commercial media, and polymerase chain reaction amplification of T foetus rDNA involving species-specific primers.

Results—Survey responses were obtained from owners of all 26 cats. Twenty-three cats had complete resolution of diarrhea a median of 9 months after onset. Analysis of fecal samples obtained from 22 cats revealed persistent T foetus infection in 12, with a median of 39 months after resolution of diarrhea. History of implementation of a dietary change, treatment with paromomycin, or higher numbers of cats in the household was associated with significantly longer duration of time to resolution of diarrhea.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested chronic T foetus-associated diarrhea in most cats is likely to resolve spontaneously within 2 years of onset. Chronic infection with T foetus(without clinical signs) after resolution of diarrhea appears to be common. Although often temporarily effective in decreasing severity of diarrhea, attempts to treat cats with T foetus infection may result in prolongation of time to resolution of diarrhea. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:888–892)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association