Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 16 items for

  • Author or Editor: Derek A. Mosier x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Summary

Renal amyloidosis was confirmed in 6 related male and female Beagles, ranging in age from 5 to 11 years. The most commonly reported signs of illness included lethargy, anorexia, vomiting, and weight loss. Common clinicopathologic abnormalities were normocytic, normochromic anemia; hypoalbuminemia; azotemia; hypercholesterolemia; proteinuria; and urine specific gravity values below the normal range. Histologic examination of renal tissue from the 6 Beagles revealed moderate to severe glomerular amyloidosis with inconsistently observed mild medullary interstitial amyloidosis. Congo red-stained kidney sections from 4 of 4 affected dogs were potassium permanganate-sensitive, suggestive of reactive amyloidosis. Hereditary predisposition for renal amyloidosis was suspected in these Beagles.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether characteristic changes in neutrophil morphology caused in vitro by Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin (LKT) can be observed in vivo by electron microscopic examination of infected tissue chamber fluids and pneumonic lungs.

Animals

7 mixed-breed beef calves.

Procedure

Tissue chambers were implanted subcutaneously in 3 calves and were inoculated with P haemolytica or phosphate-buffered saline solution. Chamber fluid samples, obtained at 8 and 32 hours after inoculation, were examined, using electron microscopy. Experimental pneumonia was induced in an additional 4 calves by transthoracic inoculation with P haemolytica. These calves were euthanatized at 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours after inoculation and lung sections were examined, using transmission electron microscopy.

Results

On examination, using transmission electron microscopy, neutrophils in lung sections and tissue chamber fluids had cytoplasmic and nuclear changes indicative of irreversible cell injury, including cell swelling, loss of plasma membrane ruffling, mitochondrial swelling, autolytic vacuolation, disruption of plasma membrane, nuclear pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis. On examination, using scanning electron microscopy, leukocytes obtained from tissue chambers did not have their typical convoluted surfaces, but appeared rounded and swollen or shrunken with pitted surfaces.

Conclusions

Pasteurella haemolytica-induced changes in neutrophil morphology in vivo were similar to those previously induced by in vitro exposure of neutrophils to LKT. Changes were suggestive of injury initiated by damage to the plasma membrane, which is consistent with the mechanism of action of pore-forming cytolysins.

Clinical Relevance

Pasteurella haemolytica LKT appears to be an important virulence factor in vivo; a fact that should be addressed in the development of vaccines. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:588–592)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Four colostrum-deprived calves each were immunized passively with antisera to whole Pasteurella haemolytica, leukotoxin-containing supernatants of P haemolytica, P haemolytica lipopolysaccharide, or newborn calf serum. Calves were challenge exposed intrabronchially with 5 × 109 P haemolytica, and 24 hours later, the resulting lesions were evaluated. The greatest protection against challenge exposure was provided by the antiserum to whole P haemolytica (lesion score = 6.3), whereas newborn calf serum provided the least protection (lesion score = 28.3). Calves that received antiserum to P haemolytica supernatants were moderately protected (lesion score = 16.3), and the antiserum to lipopolysaccharide provided minimal protection (lesion score = 21.8). Antibodies that were unique to whole P haemolytica antiserum and produced dense bands on immunoblots were detected to antigens at 66, 50, and 30 kd. Antibodies in the supernatant preparation that produced prominent bands reacted to antigens between 100 and 90 kd. Collectively, antibodies to these antigens may be responsible for enhancing resistance to experimentally induced pneumonic pasteurellosis. Antibodies to antigens in P haemolytica lipopolysaccharide provided little to no protection.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Supernatant preparations containing antigens produced by Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1 grown in nonsupplemented RPMI 1640 medium and 3 grown in supplemented RPMI 1640 media were evaluated. Antigens were detected by immunoblotting each supernatant preparation with sera from 20 cattle with various degrees of resistance to experimentally induced pneumonic pasteurellosis. Antigen antibody bands at 49 and 30 kd were correlated with resistance in all 4 media. A 66-kd antigen-antibody band was correlated with resistance in 2 media, and antigen-antibody bands at 100 and 16 kd were correlated with resistance in 1 medium each. These results indicated that the number and relative amount of resistance-associated antigens in P haemolytica supernatants can be optimized on the basis of type of growth medium used.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (bpaec) were labeled with 3H-arachidonic acid. Exposure of the labeled bpaec to Pasteurella haemolytica lipopolysaccharide (lps) resulted in a time- and dose-dependent release of radioactivity. The release was inhibited by 5 mM indomethacin, but inhibition was not caused by ≤ 500 μM indomethacin or hydrocortisone, which suggests that the release was caused primarily by a mechanism other than cyclooxygenase or phospholipase A2 metabolism of arachidonic acid.

Pasteurella haemolytica lps also caused increased adherence of bovine neutrophils to bpaec through independent effects on both cell types. The increased adherence was inhibited by treatment of either cell type with cycloheximide or actinomycin D prior to lps exposure, indicating that de novo protein synthesis was required in both cell types to promote the lps-induced adherence. Lipopolysaccharide may be an important factor in neutrophil-mediated effects in pneumonic pasteurellosis by causing increased neutrophil adherence and, thus, the vascular sequestration of neutrophils.

Together, these experiments provide additional evidence for the involvement of lps in pneumonic pasteurellosis. Moreover, they provide evidence of lps-induced endothelial activation, which could have broad ramifications in the inflammatory and immune responses of pneumonic pasteurellosis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare anamnestic antibody responses of dogs and cats with current versus out-of-date vaccination status.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—74 dogs and 33 cats.

Procedures—Serum samples were obtained from dogs and cats that had been exposed to rabies and brought to a veterinarian for proactive serologic monitoring or that had been brought to a veterinarian for booster rabies vaccination. Blood samples were collected on the day of initial evaluation (day 0) and then again 5 to 15 days later. On day 0, a rabies vaccine was administered according to label recommendations. Paired serum samples were analyzed for antirabies antibodies by means of a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test.

Results—All animals had an antirabies antibody titer ≥ 0.5 IU/mL 5 to 15 days after booster vaccination. Dogs with an out-of-date vaccination status had a higher median increase in titer, higher median fold increase in titer, and higher median titer following booster vaccination, compared with dogs with current vaccination status. Most (26/33) cats, regardless of rabies vaccination status, had a titer ≥ 12 IU/mL 5 to 15 days after booster vaccination.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that dogs with out-of-date vaccination status were not inferior in their antibody response following booster rabies vaccination, compared with dogs with current vaccination status. Findings supported immediate booster vaccination followed by observation for 45 days of dogs and cats with an out-of-date vaccination status that are exposed to rabies, as is the current practice for dogs and cats with current vaccination status.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine correlation between results of computed tomography (CT) versus pathologic examination for determining the volume percentage of affected lung in mice experimentally infected with Pasteurella pneumotropica.

Animals—30 adult mice.

Procedure—After helical CT scans on day 0, mice were inoculated intranasally with P pneumotropica. Repeat CT scans were performed on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 13. Regions of interest (affected areas) were manually drawn on the CT images, and percentage volume of normal lung was calculated by use of 3 methods: first-day volume, largest volume, and last-day volume. Three mice were euthanatized for pathologic evaluation after each scan day. The lungs were examined with a dissection microscope, and lesion scores were assigned on the basis of percentage volume of pneumonia. Correlation coefficients comparing results of the 3 CT methods with results of gross examination were calculated.

Results—Lung abnormalities were detected via dissection microscopy by postinfection day 2 and via CT by days 2 or 3. Correlation coefficients for the 3 CT methods of analysis, compared with pathologic findings, were 0.7 via first-day lung volume, 0.8 via largest lung volume, and 0.8 via last-day lung volume.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of CT correlated well with results of dissection microscopy for estimating percentage volume of lung affected by pneumonia in mice experimentally infected with P pneumotropica. This method may be useful for longitudinal studies of pneumonia in mice. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:835–838)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the precision of a clinical illness score (CIS) system for identification of clinical signs in calves with experimentally induced Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia and to evaluate the accuracy of CISs in relation to pulmonary consolidation scores assigned at necropsy.

Animals—178 Holstein bull calves that were 52 to 91 days of age at the time of pneumonia induction.

Procedures—5 trials involved calves challenged with M bovis and scheduled for euthanasia and necropsy 12 to 24 days afterward. Nine veterinarian observers with various degrees of experience simultaneously assigned CISs to calves within 48 hours before necropsy. The precision of the CIS system among observers was evaluated via the Cohen κ statistic. The accuracy of each observer's CISs relative to 6 cutoffs (≥ 5%, ≥ 10%, ≥ 15%, ≥ 20%, ≥ 25%, and ≥ 30%) of percentage pulmonary consolidation was determined by comparing prenecropsy CISs with the gross pulmonary consolidation scores assigned at necropsy. Estimates for sensitivity and specificity were calculated relative to the 6 pulmonary consolidation cutoffs.

Results—A slight level of agreement was evident among observers (κ range, 0.10 to 0.21 for the individual trials) and overall (κ = 0.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.10 to 0.24). Median sensitivity and specificity changed with pulmonary consolidation score cutoff. Median sensitivity for all observers ranged from 81.7% to 98.9%, and median specificity ranged from 80.8% to 94.9% over all cutoff values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Agreement among observers assigning CISs to calves was low; the accuracy of the CIS system in relation to that of pulmonary consolidation scoring varied with the severity of consolidation considered to represent bovine respiratory disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the usefulness of physiologic, behavioral, and pathological changes as objective indicators of early respiratory disease in calves with Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia.

Animals—14 crossbred beef steers.

Procedures—Disease was experimentally induced in healthy calves through endoscopic pulmonary inoculation of M haemolytica. Calves were necropsied on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9 after inoculation. Physical examination variables (rectal temperature, heart rate, and respiration characteristics), clinical illness score, and degree of activity were assessed 3 times daily beginning 4 days prior to inoculation and continuing throughout the study. Twice before inoculation and on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9, arterial blood gas measurements, serum biochemical analyses, and CBCs were performed. Pedometers and accelerometers were used to monitor cattle behavior and activity throughout the trial.

Results—All calves became clinically ill after inoculation and had gross and histopathologic signs of bronchopneumonia. No variable was a reliable indicator of disease progression as judged by percentage of pulmonary involvement. However, activity as measured by total steps taken in a 24-hour period was lower after versus before disease induction.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This single-pathogen challenge model successfully yielded clinical signs and pathological effects consistent with naturally acquired respiratory disease. Routine laboratory variables and subjective measures were not reliable indicators of lung involvement or the progression of pneumonia. However, activity, objectively measured with pedometers and accelerometers, appeared to be a promising indicator for early recognition of bovine respiratory disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research