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Summary

Tracheal wash and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analyses were performed in 9 dogs that had mycotic infections with pulmonary involvement. Characteristic organisms were identified in tracheal wash fluid in 3 of 7 dogs with blastomycosis. Organisms were identified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in 5 of 7 dogs with blastomycosis and in one dog with histoplasmosis. Organisms were not found in either fluid in one dog with coccidioidomycosis. These procedures should be considered for dogs with suspected mycotic infections that involve the lungs and that cannot be diagnosed by less invasive means.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the association among clinical signs, results of cytologic evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and measures of pulmonary function in horses with inflammatory respiratory disease.

Animals—9 healthy horses, 5 horses with inflammatory airway disease (IAD), and 9 horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Procedure—Clinical examination, lung function tests, and BAL were performed on each horse.

Results—Standard lung mechanics of horses with exacerbated COPD differed significantly from those of healthy horses; however, there were few differences among horses with IAD, horses with COPD during remission, and healthy horses. Most variables for forced expiration (FE) in horses with COPD or IAD differed significantly from those for healthy horses. Results of clinical examination had low to moderate sensitivity and predictive values for a diagnosis of COPD (range, 67 to 80%). Results of FE tests had high sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for a diagnosis of COPD (79 to 100%), and results of standard lung mechanics tests had low sensitivity and predictive values (22 to 69%). Percentage of neutrophils in BAL fluid was highly sensitive (100%) but moderately specific (64%) for a diagnosis of COPD.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Clinical examination is moderately accurate for establishing a diagnosis of COPD. Forced expiration tests can specifically detect early signs of airway obstruction in horses with COPD and IAD that may otherwise be inapparent. Cytologic evaluation of BAL fluid allows early detection of inflammatory respiratory disease, but it is not specific for COPD. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62: 538–546)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 in the urinary bladder epithelium of clinically normal dogs and in transitional cell carcinoma cells of dogs.

Animals—21 dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and 8 dogs with clinically normal urinary bladders.

Procedure—COX-1 and COX-2 were evaluated by use of isoform-specific antibodies with standard immunohistochemical methods.

Results—COX-1, but not COX-2, was constitutively expressed in normal urinary bladder epithelium; however, COX-2 was expressed in neoplastic epithelium in primary tumors and in metastatic lesions of all 21 dogs and in new proliferating blood vessels in 3 dogs. Also, COX-1 was expressed in the neoplastic cells.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Lack of expression of COX-2 in normal bladder epithelium and its substantial expression in transitional cell carcinoma cells suggest that this isoform may be involved in tumor cell growth. Inhibition of COX-2 is a likely mechanism of the antineoplastic effects of non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:478–481)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether administration of amphotericin B in a fat emulsion solution would reduce the nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B, compared with that associated with administration of amphotericin B in 5% dextrose solution.

Design

Prospective controlled study.

Animals

2 groups of 5 adult male Beagles.

Procedure

Dogs received amphotericin B (1 mg/kg of body weight/d) prepared in 5% dextrose solution or in 20% fat emulsion daily for 6 doses. Serum biochemical analysis, CBC, urinalysis, and endogenous creatinine clearance were performed on days 0 and 8, 2 days after the last dose of amphotericin B. On day 8, dogs were euthanatized and gross necropsies were performed. Unbiased semiquantitative scoring of the kidneys for the degree of injury was performed by use of light microscopy.

Results

There were no significant differences in serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, or potassium concentrations, urine specific gravity, endogenous creatinine clearance, or degree of tubulo-interstitial injury between the 2 groups.

Conclusion

In this model, the degree of nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B was not significantly different for dogs receiving the drug in a fat emulsion versus its administration in 5% dextrose. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1054–1058)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) was performed in 47 dogs with multicentric malignant lymphoma (ml). Cytologic results were evaluated, and ability to detect pulmonary involvement with ml, using bal, was compared with ability to detect pulmonary involvement, using thoracic radiography and tracheal wash. Lung lobes were considered to be involved with ml on the basis of bal fluid findings if morphologically abnormal lymphocytes were present in the fluid.

Total nucleated cell count, relative lymphocyte count, and absolute lymphocyte count were greater (P < 0.001) in bal fluid from dogs with multicentric ml than in bal fluid from histologically normal dogs. Pulmonary involvement with ml was detected by bal fluid cytologic examination in 89 of 135 lung lobes lavaged (66%). Lung lobes involved with ml were from 31 of the 47 dogs with multicentric ml (66%). Radiographic abnormalities supportive of pulmonary parenchymal involvement with ml were detected in 16 of the 47 dogs (34%). Of these 16 dogs, 15 (94%) had pulmonary involvement with ml on the basis of bal fluid cytologic findings. Tracheal wash fluid contained abnormal lymphocytes in 4 of 42 dogs (10%). In all 4 dogs, bal fluid also contained abnormal lymphocytes. Cytologic evaluation of bal fluid was more sensitive in detecting pulmonary involvement with ml, compared with radiographic evaluation of the lungs or tracheal wash.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of piroxicam for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma in dogs.

Design—Prospective case series.

Animals—17 dogs with measurable oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Procedure—Dogs were treated with piroxicam at a dosage of 0.3 mg/kg (0.14 mg/lb) of body weight, PO, every 24 hours until progressive disease or unacceptable signs of toxicosis developed or the dog died.

Results—One dog had a complete remission (maxillary tumor), and 2 dogs had partial remissions (lingual tumor and tonsillar tumor). An additional 5 dogs had stable disease, including 1 with a maxillary tumor, 2 with mandibular tumors, and 2 with tonsillar tumors. Variables associated with tumor response were not identified. Median and mean times to failure for the 3 dogs that had a remission were 180 and 223 days, respectively. Median and mean times to failure for the 5 dogs with stable disease were 102 and 223 days, respectively. Time to failure was positively associated with tumor response and negatively associated with tumor size. One dog had mild adverse gastrointestinal tract effects that resolved with the addition of misoprostol to the treatment regimen.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that piroxicam may be useful in the treatment of dogs with oral squamous cell carcinoma; response rate was similar to that reported for other cytotoxic treatments. Larger-scale studies are warranted to determine what role piroxicam may have, alone or in combination with other treatments, for the treatment of dogs with oral squamous cell carcinoma. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1783–1786)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether cisplatin administered at a dosage of 60 mg/m2 of body surface area, IV, every 21 days, would induce remission of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in dogs.

Design

Retrospective analysis of medical records.

Animals

18 dogs with histologically confirmed transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

Procedure

Clinical staging was performed by means of physical examination, contrast cystography or ultrasonography, and thoracic radiography prior to and 42 days after the initiation of cisplatin treatment. Dogs with clinical signs of tumor progression were reevaluated earlier than 42 days in some instances. Complete remission (CR) was defined as complete resolution of measurable tumor. Partial remission (PR) was defined as a ≥ 50% reduction in tumor volume without development of new tumors. Stable disease was defined as < 50% change in tumor volume at 42 days without development of new lesions. Progressive disease (PD) was defined as ≥ 50% increase in tumor volume or development of new tumors at any time. Dogs were reevaluated at 42-day intervals until they had a CR, developed PD, or developed unacceptable adverse effects.

Results

Three dogs had a PR, 4 had stable disease, and 9 had PD. Tumor response could not be assessed in 2 dogs: 1 dog developed grand mal seizures 3 hours after the first dose of cisplatin was given and was euthanatized; the other dog continued to have clinical signs of urinary tract obstruction and was euthanatized 8 days after the first dose of cisplatin. Four dogs developed renal azotemia that was suspected to be secondary to cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

Clinical Implications

The cisplatin dosage was higher than that reported in studies of dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Even with this higher dosage, none of the dogs had a CR, and only 3 of 18 had a PR. A more effective, less toxic treatment for transitional cell carcinoma in dogs is needed. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1588–1591)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Seven cats with thyroid carcinomas that had previously undergone surgical removal of neoplastic tissue were treated with 30 mCi of radioactive iodine (131I). Six of the cats had clinical signs of hyperthyroidism; 1 did not. There were no complications associated with 131I treatment, and clinical signs resolved in all cats. Technetium scans of 4 cats made after treatment did not have evidence of isotope uptake. In the remaining 3 cats, small areas of isotope uptake, the intensity of which was equal to or less than the intensity of uptake in the salivary glands, were seen. All 7 cats became hypothyroid after treatment; 4 required L-thyroxine supplementation. One cat was alive 33 months after treatment. The other 6 cats were euthanatized because of unrelated diseases 10 to 41 months after treatment.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association