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  • Author or Editor: Dennis B. DeNicola x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the association among clinical signs, results of cytologic evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and measures of pulmonary function in horses with inflammatory respiratory disease.

Animals—9 healthy horses, 5 horses with inflammatory airway disease (IAD), and 9 horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Procedure—Clinical examination, lung function tests, and BAL were performed on each horse.

Results—Standard lung mechanics of horses with exacerbated COPD differed significantly from those of healthy horses; however, there were few differences among horses with IAD, horses with COPD during remission, and healthy horses. Most variables for forced expiration (FE) in horses with COPD or IAD differed significantly from those for healthy horses. Results of clinical examination had low to moderate sensitivity and predictive values for a diagnosis of COPD (range, 67 to 80%). Results of FE tests had high sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for a diagnosis of COPD (79 to 100%), and results of standard lung mechanics tests had low sensitivity and predictive values (22 to 69%). Percentage of neutrophils in BAL fluid was highly sensitive (100%) but moderately specific (64%) for a diagnosis of COPD.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Clinical examination is moderately accurate for establishing a diagnosis of COPD. Forced expiration tests can specifically detect early signs of airway obstruction in horses with COPD and IAD that may otherwise be inapparent. Cytologic evaluation of BAL fluid allows early detection of inflammatory respiratory disease, but it is not specific for COPD. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62: 538–546)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 in the urinary bladder epithelium of clinically normal dogs and in transitional cell carcinoma cells of dogs.

Animals—21 dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and 8 dogs with clinically normal urinary bladders.

Procedure—COX-1 and COX-2 were evaluated by use of isoform-specific antibodies with standard immunohistochemical methods.

Results—COX-1, but not COX-2, was constitutively expressed in normal urinary bladder epithelium; however, COX-2 was expressed in neoplastic epithelium in primary tumors and in metastatic lesions of all 21 dogs and in new proliferating blood vessels in 3 dogs. Also, COX-1 was expressed in the neoplastic cells.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Lack of expression of COX-2 in normal bladder epithelium and its substantial expression in transitional cell carcinoma cells suggest that this isoform may be involved in tumor cell growth. Inhibition of COX-2 is a likely mechanism of the antineoplastic effects of non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:478–481)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of piroxicam for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma in dogs.

Design—Prospective case series.

Animals—17 dogs with measurable oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Procedure—Dogs were treated with piroxicam at a dosage of 0.3 mg/kg (0.14 mg/lb) of body weight, PO, every 24 hours until progressive disease or unacceptable signs of toxicosis developed or the dog died.

Results—One dog had a complete remission (maxillary tumor), and 2 dogs had partial remissions (lingual tumor and tonsillar tumor). An additional 5 dogs had stable disease, including 1 with a maxillary tumor, 2 with mandibular tumors, and 2 with tonsillar tumors. Variables associated with tumor response were not identified. Median and mean times to failure for the 3 dogs that had a remission were 180 and 223 days, respectively. Median and mean times to failure for the 5 dogs with stable disease were 102 and 223 days, respectively. Time to failure was positively associated with tumor response and negatively associated with tumor size. One dog had mild adverse gastrointestinal tract effects that resolved with the addition of misoprostol to the treatment regimen.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that piroxicam may be useful in the treatment of dogs with oral squamous cell carcinoma; response rate was similar to that reported for other cytotoxic treatments. Larger-scale studies are warranted to determine what role piroxicam may have, alone or in combination with other treatments, for the treatment of dogs with oral squamous cell carcinoma. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1783–1786)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the antitumor and toxic effects of treatment with doxorubicin combined with piroxicam or doxorubicin alone for multicentric lymphoma in dogs.

Design—Nonrandomized clinical trial.

Animals—75 dogs with multicentric lymphoma.

Procedure—33 dogs were treated with doxorubicin (30 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d, for 3 doses) and piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h); results were compared with a historical control group of 42 dogs treated with doxorubicin (30 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d, for 3 doses) alone.

Results—The percentages of dogs that had remission with doxorubicin-piroxicam treatment (79%) or doxorubicin treatment alone (74%) were not significantly different. Median duration of first remission was 130 days with doxorubicin-piroxicam and 147 days with doxorubicin alone; these values were not significantly different. Severe toxicosis was observed in 22% of dogs treated with doxorubicin-piroxicam and 17% of dogs treated with doxorubicin alone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both treatment protocols were efficacious and well tolerated. The doxorubicin-piroxicam treatment was no more effective regarding response rate, remission duration, or survival duration, compared with the control group treated with doxorubicin alone. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1813–1817)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association