Objective—To evaluate the association among clinical
signs, results of cytologic evaluation of bronchoalveolar
lavage (BAL) fluid, and measures of pulmonary
function in horses with inflammatory respiratory
Animals—9 healthy horses, 5 horses with inflammatory
airway disease (IAD), and 9 horses with chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Procedure—Clinical examination, lung function
tests, and BAL were performed on each horse.
Results—Standard lung mechanics of horses with
exacerbated COPD differed significantly from those
of healthy horses; however, there were few differences
among horses with IAD, horses with COPD
during remission, and healthy horses. Most variables
for forced expiration (FE) in horses with COPD or IAD
differed significantly from those for healthy horses.
Results of clinical examination had low to moderate
sensitivity and predictive values for a diagnosis of
COPD (range, 67 to 80%). Results of FE tests had
high sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for a
diagnosis of COPD (79 to 100%), and results of standard
lung mechanics tests had low sensitivity and
predictive values (22 to 69%). Percentage of neutrophils
in BAL fluid was highly sensitive (100%) but
moderately specific (64%) for a diagnosis of COPD.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Clinical examination
is moderately accurate for establishing a diagnosis
of COPD. Forced expiration tests can specifically
detect early signs of airway obstruction in horses
with COPD and IAD that may otherwise be inapparent.
Cytologic evaluation of BAL fluid allows early
detection of inflammatory respiratory disease, but it
is not specific for COPD. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:
Objective—To evaluate expression of cyclooxygenase
(COX)-1 and COX-2 in the urinary bladder epithelium of
clinically normal dogs and in transitional cell carcinoma
cells of dogs.
Animals—21 dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of
the urinary bladder and 8 dogs with clinically normal
Procedure—COX-1 and COX-2 were evaluated by
use of isoform-specific antibodies with standard
Results—COX-1, but not COX-2, was constitutively
expressed in normal urinary bladder epithelium; however,
COX-2 was expressed in neoplastic epithelium
in primary tumors and in metastatic lesions of all 21
dogs and in new proliferating blood vessels in 3 dogs.
Also, COX-1 was expressed in the neoplastic cells.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Lack of
expression of COX-2 in normal bladder epithelium and
its substantial expression in transitional cell carcinoma
cells suggest that this isoform may be involved in
tumor cell growth. Inhibition of COX-2 is a likely
mechanism of the antineoplastic effects of non
steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To evaluate the use of piroxicam for the
treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma in dogs.
Design—Prospective case series.
Animals—17 dogs with measurable oral squamous
Procedure—Dogs were treated with piroxicam at a
dosage of 0.3 mg/kg (0.14 mg/lb) of body weight, PO,
every 24 hours until progressive disease or unacceptable
signs of toxicosis developed or the dog died.
Results—One dog had a complete remission (maxillary
tumor), and 2 dogs had partial remissions (lingual
tumor and tonsillar tumor). An additional 5 dogs had
stable disease, including 1 with a maxillary tumor, 2
with mandibular tumors, and 2 with tonsillar tumors.
Variables associated with tumor response were not
identified. Median and mean times to failure for the 3
dogs that had a remission were 180 and 223 days,
respectively. Median and mean times to failure for the
5 dogs with stable disease were 102 and 223 days,
respectively. Time to failure was positively associated
with tumor response and negatively associated with
tumor size. One dog had mild adverse gastrointestinal
tract effects that resolved with the addition of misoprostol
to the treatment regimen.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that piroxicam may be useful in the treatment of
dogs with oral squamous cell carcinoma; response
rate was similar to that reported for other cytotoxic
treatments. Larger-scale studies are warranted to
determine what role piroxicam may have, alone or in
combination with other treatments, for the treatment
of dogs with oral squamous cell carcinoma. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2001;218:1783–1786)
Objective—To evaluate the antitumor and toxic
effects of treatment with doxorubicin combined with
piroxicam or doxorubicin alone for multicentric lymphoma
Design—Nonrandomized clinical trial.
Animals—75 dogs with multicentric lymphoma.
Procedure—33 dogs were treated with doxorubicin
(30 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d, for 3 doses) and piroxicam (0.3
mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h); results were compared
with a historical control group of 42 dogs treated
with doxorubicin (30 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d, for 3 doses)
Results—The percentages of dogs that had remission
with doxorubicin-piroxicam treatment (79%) or
doxorubicin treatment alone (74%) were not significantly
different. Median duration of first remission
was 130 days with doxorubicin-piroxicam and 147
days with doxorubicin alone; these values were not
significantly different. Severe toxicosis was observed
in 22% of dogs treated with doxorubicin-piroxicam
and 17% of dogs treated with doxorubicin alone.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both treatment
protocols were efficacious and well tolerated.
The doxorubicin-piroxicam treatment was no more
effective regarding response rate, remission duration,
or survival duration, compared with the control group
treated with doxorubicin alone. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1813–1817)