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- Author or Editor: Denise T. Fantoni x
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Objective—To develop and validate a health-related quality-of-life scale for dogs with pain secondary to cancer.
Animals—40 healthy dogs with no history or signs of pain, 20 dogs with dermatologic disease but no signs of pain other than mild pruritus, and 20 dogs with cancer.
Procedure—Owners of all dogs completed a questionnaire containing 12 questions with 4 options for each question, and a quality-of-life score ranging from 0 to 36 was calculated. Scores for dogs with cancer were compared with scores for healthy dogs and dogs with dermatologic disease.
Results—All owners indicated that the questionnaire was easy to complete. Scores for healthy dogs were significantly different from scores for dogs with cancer and scores for dogs with dermatologic disease. Scores for dogs with dermatologic disease were significantly different from scores for dogs with cancer.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that a simple questionnaire may be useful in assessing health-related quality of life in dogs with pain secondary to cancer, in that dogs with cancer had significantly lower scores than did healthy dogs and dogs with dermatologic disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1354–1358)
Objective—To evaluate the postoperative analgesic effects of epidural administration of morphine and neostigmine, either alone or in combination, in dogs.
Animals—30 dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery on a pelvic limb.
Procedures—Anesthetic protocols were standardized. At the end of surgery, 10 dogs each received 1 of 3 epidural treatments: morphine (0.1 mg/kg), neostigmine (5 μg/kg), or morphine plus neostigmine (0.1 mg/kg and 5 μg/kg, respectively). Postoperative pain scores and the need for rescue analgesia were evaluated for 24 hours.
Results—Pain scores were higher in the neostigmine group, compared with scores for the morphine-neostigmine group, at 2 and 24 hours after surgery and higher in the morphine group than in the morphine-neostigmine group at 2 and 4 hours. During 24 hours, rescue analgesia was provided for 4, 7, and 2 of 10 dogs each in the morphine, neostigmine, and morphine-neostigmine groups, respectively. The number of dogs given rescue analgesia was significantly different among groups at 2, 3, 4, and 6 hours after surgery. Dogs in the morphine and morphine-neostigmine groups had a lower probability of receiving rescue analgesia within 24 hours than did dogs in the neostigmine group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—When administered epidurally, morphine alone or in combination with neostigmine provided effective postoperative analgesia in most dogs after orthopedic surgery, whereas neostigmine alone did not. Findings for this study suggested a potential role for neostigmine as an adjuvant for epidural analgesia in dogs undergoing orthopedic surgeries on the pelvic limbs.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of a dexmedetomidine constant rate infusion (CRI) and atropine on changes in global perfusion variables induced by hemorrhage and volume replacement (VR) in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.
Animals—8 adult dogs.
Procedures—Each dog was anesthetized twice, with a 2-week interval between anesthetic sessions. Anesthesia was maintained with 1.3 times the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane with and without dexmedetomidine (1.6 μg/kg, IV bolus, followed by 2 μg/kg/h, CRI). Dogs were mechanically ventilated and received an atracurium neuromuscular blockade during both sessions. During anesthesia with isoflurane and dexmedetomidine, atropine was administered 30 minutes before baseline measurements were obtained. After baseline data were recorded, 30% of the total blood volume was progressively withdrawn and VR was achieved with an equal proportion of autologous blood.
Results—Following hemorrhage, cardiac index, oxygen delivery index, and mixed-venous oxygen saturation were significantly decreased and the oxygen extraction ratio was significantly increased from baseline. The anaerobic threshold was not achieved during either anesthetic session. When dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane and dexmedetomidine, they had a significantly lower heart rate, cardiac index, and mixed-venous oxygen saturation during VR than they did when anesthetized with isoflurane alone. Plasma lactate concentration, mixed venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference, base excess, and anion gap were unaltered by hemorrhage and VR and did not differ between anesthetic sessions.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the use of a dexmedetomidine CRI combined with atropine in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs that underwent volume-controlled hemorrhage followed by VR did not compromise global perfusion sufficiently to result in anaerobic metabolism.
Objective—To compare cardiovascular and systemic effects and analgesia during the postoperative period of epidural anesthesia performed with bupivacaine alone or with fentanyl or sufentanil in bitches maintained at a light plane of anesthesia with continuous infusion of propofol.
Study Design—Prospective randomized masked clinical trial.
Animals—30 female dogs of various breeds.
Procedures—Dogs were allocated into 3 groups of 10 each. One group received fentanyl (2 μg/kg [0.91 μg/lb]) and bupivacaine (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb]), 1 group received sufentanil (1 μg/kg) and bupivacaine (1 mg/kg), and 1 group received bupivacaine (1 mg/kg). All dogs received acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb]) and continuous infusion of propofol for sedation. The agents were administered into the lumbosacral space and diluted in saline (0.9% NaCl) solution to a total volume of 0.36 mL/kg (0.164 mL/lb). Cardiac and respiratory rates, arterial blood pressures, pH, and blood gases were evaluated. Analgesia, sedation level, serum cortisol concentrations, and plasma catecholamine concentrations were measured regularly for 6 hours.
Results—No important changes in cardiovascular, respiratory, or sedation variables were observed. Degree of analgesia in the postoperative period was higher in the sufentanil group, although use of fentanyl and bupivacaine also resulted in a sufficient level of analgesia.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of the 3 anesthetic techniques permitted ovariohysterectomy with sufficient analgesia and acceptable neuroendocrine modulation of pain with minimal adverse effects.
Objective—To compare analgesic effects of tramadol, codeine, and ketoprofen administered alone and in combination and their effects on concentrations of blood glucose, serum cortisol, and serum interleukin (IL)-6 in dogs undergoing maxillectomy or mandibulectomy.
Animals—42 dogs with oral neoplasms.
Procedures—30 minutes before the end of surgery, dogs received SC injections of tramadol (2 mg/kg), codeine (2 mg/kg), ketoprofen (2 mg/kg), tramadol + ketoprofen, or codeine + ketoprofen (at the aforementioned dosages). Physiologic variables, analgesia, and sedation were measured before (baseline) and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 24 hours after surgery. Blood glucose, serum cortisol, and serum IL-6 concentrations were measured 1, 3, 5, and 24 hours after administration of analgesics.
Results—All treatments provided adequate postoperative analgesia. Significant increases in mean ± SD blood glucose concentrations were detected in dogs receiving tramadol (96 ± 14 mg/dL), codeine (120 ± 66 mg/dL and 96 ± 21 mg/dL), ketoprofen (105 ± 22 mg/dL), and codeine + ketoprofen (104 ± 16 mg/dL) at 5, 1 and 3, 5, and 3 hours after analgesic administration, respectively, compared with preoperative (baseline) values. There were no significant changes in physiologic variables, serum IL-6 concentrations, or serum cortisol concentrations. Dogs administered codeine + ketoprofen had light but significant sedation at 4, 5, and 24 hours.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Opioids alone or in combination with an NSAID promoted analgesia without adverse effects during the 24-hour postoperative period in dogs undergoing maxillectomy or mandibulectomy for removal of oral neoplasms. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1019–1026)