Objective—To evaluate complications and outcomes
associated with use of gastrostomy tubes in dogs
with renal failure.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for dogs
with renal failure that were treated by use of gastrostomy
Results—Mean ± SD BUN concentration was 134 ±
79 mg/dl and mean serum creatinine concentration
was 9.0 ± 3.8 mg/dl. Low-profile gastrostomy tubes
were used for initial placement in 10 dogs, and traditional
gastrostomy tubes were used in 46 dogs. Mild
stoma-site complications included discharge,
swelling, erythema, and signs of pain in 26 (46%) of
dogs. Twenty-six gastrostomy tubes were replaced in
15 dogs; 11 were replaced because of patient
removal, 6 were replaced because of tube wear, and
3 were replaced for other reasons. Six tubes were
replaced by low-profile gastrostomy tubes.
Gastrostomy tubes were used for 65 ± 91 days
(range, 1 to 438 days). Eight dogs gained weight, 11
did not change weight, and 17 lost weight; information
was not available for 20 dogs. Three dogs were
euthanatized because they removed their gastrostomy
tubes, 2 were euthanatized because of evidence
of tube migration, and 1 died of peritonitis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gastrostomy
tubes appear to be safe and effective for improving
nutritional status of dogs with renal failure. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2000;217:1337–1342)
Objective—To evaluate the reliability of history and
physical examination findings for assessing control of
glycemia in insulin-treated diabetic dogs.
Animals—53 insulin-treated dogs with diabetes mellitus.
Procedure—Medical records of insulin-treated diabetic
dogs from June 1995 to June 1998 were
reviewed, and information on owner perception of
their dog's response to insulin treatment, physical
examination findings, body weight, insulin dosage,
and concentrations of food-withheld (ie, fasting) blood
glucose (FBG), mean blood glucose (MBG) during an
8-hour period, blood glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb),
and serum fructosamine was obtained. Owner's perception
of their dog's response to insulin treatment,
physical examination findings, and changes in body
weight were used to classify control of glycemia as
good or poor for each dog. The FBG, MBG/8 h, blood
GHb, and serum fructosamine concentrations were
compared between well-controlled and poorly controlled
insulin-treated diabetic dogs.
Results—Presence or absence of polyuria, polydipsia,
polyphagia, lethargy, and weakness were most
helpful in classifying control of glycemia. Mean FBG
and MBG/8 h concentrations, blood GHb concentrations,
and serum fructosamine concentrations were
significantly decreased in 25 well-controlled diabetic
dogs, compared with 28 poorly controlled diabetic
dogs. Most well-controlled diabetic dogs had concentrations
of FBG between 100 and 300 mg/dl, MBG/8
h ≤ 250 mg/dl, blood GHb ≤ 7.5%, and serum fructosamine
≤ 525 µmol/L, whereas most poorly controlled
diabetic dogs had results that were greater
than these values.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Reliance on
history, physical examination findings, and changes in
body weight are effective for initially assessing control
of glycemia in insulin-treated diabetic dogs. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:48–53)
Objective—To determine prevalence of pituitary
tumors, detectable by means of computed tomography
or magnetic resonance imaging, in cats with
insulin resistance suspected to have acromegaly or
hyperadrenocorticism versus cats with well-controlled
Animals—16 cats with insulin resistance that were
also suspected to have acromegaly (n = 12) or pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (4) and 8 cats
with well-controlled diabetes mellitus.
Procedure—Computed tomography was performed
on all 16 cats with insulin resistance and 2 cats in
which diabetes mellitus was well-controlled. The
remaining 6 cats in which diabetes mellitus was wellcontrolled
underwent magnetic resonance imaging.
Images were obtained before and immediately after
IV administration of contrast medium.
Results—Computed tomography revealed a mass in
the region of the pituitary gland in all 16 cats with
insulin resistance. Maximum width of the masses
ranged from 4.4 to 12.7 mm; maximum height ranged
from 3.1 to 12.6 mm. Results of computed tomography
performed on 2 cats with well-controlled diabetes
and magnetic resonance imaging performed on the
remaining 6 cats were considered normal.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that cats with insulin resistance suspected to
have acromegaly or pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism
are likely to have a pituitary mass detectable
by means of computed tomography or magnetic resonance
imaging. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:
Objective—To evaluate the use of multifrequency
bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) for estimating
total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid
volume (ECFV), and intracellular fluid volume (ICFV)
Animals—9 healthy mares.
Procedure—TBW and ECFV were measured by use
of deuterium oxide and sodium bromide dilution techniques,
respectively. Intracellular fluid volume was
calculated as the difference between TBW and ECFV.
Concurrently, MF-BIA recordings were obtained by
use of 4 anatomic electrode positions and 3 measurements
of length. Models for MF-BIA data were
created for all combinations of length and anatomic
electrode position. Models were evaluated to determine
the position-length configuration that provided
the most consistent estimates of TBW, ECFV, and
ICFV, compared with values determined by use of the
Results—Positioning electrodes over the ipsilateral
carpus and tarsus and use of height at the tuber
sacrale for length provided the closest estimate
between values for TBW, ECFV, and ICFV predicted by
use of MF-BIA and measured values obtained by dilutional
techniques. This model had the narrowest 95%
limits of agreement.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—MF-BIA
techniques have been used to predict changes in
TBW, ECFV, and ICFV in healthy and diseased
humans. Results reported in this study provide an
equine-specific model to serve as the basis for further
evaluation of MF-BIA in horses with altered fluid
states. The MF-BIA techniques have a number of
potential applications for use in horses, including
evaluation of exercise physiology, pharmacologic
studies, and critical-care management. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:320–326)
Objective—To characterize the effect of maintenance
hemodialysis on plasma amino acid concentrations
and to quantitate free amino acid losses into the
dialysate during hemodialysis in healthy dogs.
Animals—8 healthy adult dogs.
Procedure—Five dogs received hemodialysis treatments
3 times per week for 4 weeks. Plasma amino
acid concentrations were evaluated once per week
for 4 weeks in each of the 5 dogs prior to hemodialysis
(time 0), 90 minutes during hemodialysis, and
immediately after hemodialysis (180 minutes). Total
free amino acid concentrations and plasma amino
acid concentrations (time 0, 90 minutes, and 180 minutes)
in the dialysate were evaluated in 3 dogs that
received 1 hemodialysis treatment.
Results—Significant time versus week interactions
with any plasma amino acid were not detected; however,
significant decreases in all plasma amino acid
concentrations measured were detected at the midpoint
of dialysis (46 ± 2%) and at the end of each dialysis
session (38 ± 2%). Mean (± SEM) total free
amino acid loss into the dialysate was 2.7 ± 0.2 g or
0.12 g/kg of body weight.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hemodialysis
is associated with significant alterations in plasma
amino acid concentrations and loss of free amino
acids into the dialysate. Loss of amino acids into the
dialysate, coupled with protein calorie malnutrition in
uremic patients, may contribute to depletion of amino
acid stores.(Am J Vet Res 2000;61:869–873)
Objective—To determine whether gonadectomy or age at gonadectomy was associated with the risk that dogs would subsequently become overweight.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—1,930 dogs gonadectomized between 1998 and 2001 at ≤ 6 months of age (n = 782), > 6 months to ≤ 1 year of age (861), or > 1 to ≤ 5 years of age (287) and 1,669 sexually intact dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were followed-up through medical records for ≥ 10 years or until a diagnosis of overweight (defined as overweight, obese, or having a body condition score ≥ 4/5) was recorded. Information extracted included age at study entry, sex, breed, breed-size category, hospital visit frequency, and diagnosis (yes or no) of overweight or diseases that might affect body condition. Relative risk of a diagnosis of overweight was assessed among age groups of gonadectomized dogs and between gonadectomized and sexually intact dogs.
Results—No difference was detected among dogs grouped according to age at gonadectomy with respect to the risk of being overweight. This risk was significantly greater in gonadectomized dogs than in sexually intact dogs, but only during the first 2 years after gonadectomy. Sexually intact male dogs were approximately 40% less likely to have this diagnosis (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.52 to 0.72) than were sexually intact female dogs; no difference in risk between the sexes was evident for gonadectomized dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gonadectomized dogs had a greater risk of being overweight than did sexually intact dogs, but this risk was not influenced by age at gonadectomy. Opportunities exist for veterinarians to provide counseling during the first years after gonadectomy to help dogs maintain a healthy weight.