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  • Author or Editor: Denis J. Marcellin-Little x
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Abstract

Objective—To compare 5 radiographic views for the detection of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in dogs with signs of elbow joint pain.

Animals—53 dogs (100 elbow joints) with forelimb lameness and signs of elbow joint pain.

Procedures—Mediolateral (ML), flexed ML, craniocaudal (CC), craniolateral-caudomedial oblique (Cr15L-CdMO), and distomedial-proximolateral oblique (Di35M-PrLO) radiographic views of the 100 elbow joints were obtained. Four examiners graded radiographs with regard to elbow joint OCD. Joints were assessed by use of arthroscopy. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, kappa measure of agreement, and Fisher exact tests for association between median diagnostic value and actual status were computed.

Results—47 joints had an abnormal medial aspect of the humeral condyle (MAHC), and among them, 11 had OCD. The presence of fractures of the medial coronoid process was significantly and positively correlated with the presence of abnormalities of the MAHC (r = 0.40), but was negatively correlated with the presence of OCD (r = −0.32). At 95% specificity, median sensitivities to detect OCD were 57% for Cr15L-CdMO, 56% for CC, 10% for flexed ML, 7% for ML, and 4% for Di35M-PrLO views. The areas under the ROC curves were significantly larger for the Cr15L-CdMO and CC views than for the ML, flexed ML, and Di35M-PrLO views for the detection of OCD. Only the Cr15L-CdMO and CC views allowed accurate detection of OCD.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with signs of elbow joint pain, the Cr15L-CdMO view is excellent and the CC view was good for detection of OCD.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) on canine stifle joint biomechanics in a cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)–deficient stifle joint by use of a 3-D computer model simulating the stance phase of gait and to compare biomechanics in TPLO-managed, CrCL-intact, and CrCL-deficient stifle joints.

Sample—Computer simulations of the pelvic limb of a Golden Retriever.

Procedures—A previously developed computer model of the canine pelvic limb was used to simulate TPLO stabilization to achieve a tibial plateau angle (TPA) of 5° (baseline value) in a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for tibial fragment rotation of 13° to −3°. Ligament loads, relative tibial translation, and relative tibial rotation were determined and compared with values for CrCL-intact and CrCL-deficient stifle joints.

Results—TPLO with a 5° TPA converted cranial tibial translation to caudal tibial translation and increased loads placed on the remaining stifle joint ligaments, compared with results for a CrCL-intact stifle joint. Lateral collateral ligament load was similar, medial collateral ligament load increased, and caudal cruciate ligament load decreased after TPLO, compared with loads for a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Relative tibial rotation after TPLO was similar to that of a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Stifle joint biomechanics were affected by TPLO fragment rotation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In the model, stifle joint biomechanics were partially improved after TPLO, compared with CrCL-deficient stifle joint biomechanics, but TPLO did not fully restore CrCL-intact stifle joint biomechanics. Overrotation of the tibial fragment negatively influenced stifle joint biomechanics by increasing caudal tibial translation.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To design and manufacture custom titanium bone plates and a custom cutting and drill guide by use of free-form fabrication methods and to compare variables and mechanical properties of 2 canine tibial plateau leveling methods with each other and with historical control values.

Sample Population—10 canine tibial replicas created by rapid prototyping methods.

Procedures—Application time, accuracy of correction of the tibial plateau slope (TPS), presence and magnitude of rotational and angular deformation, and replica axial stiffness for 2 chevron wedge osteotomy (CWO) methods were assessed. One involved use of freehand CWO (FHCWO) and screw hole drilling, whereas the other used jig-guided CWO (JGCWO) and screw hole drilling.

Results—Replicas used for FHCWO and JGCWO methods had similar stiffness. Although JGCWO and FHCWO did not weaken the replicas, mean axial stiffness of replicas after JGCWO was higher than after FHCWO. The JGCWO method was faster than the FHCWO method. Mean ± SD TPS after osteotomy was lower for FHCWO (4.4 ± 1.1°) than for JGCWO (9.5 ± 0.4°), and JGCWO was more accurate (target TPS, 8.9°). Slight varus was evident after FHCWO but not after JGCWO. Mean postoperative rotation after JGCWO and FHCWO did not differ from the target value or between methods.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The JGCWO method was more accurate and more rapid and resulted in more stability than the FHCWO method. Use of custom drill guides could enhance the speed, accuracy, and stability of corrective osteotomies in dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate the influence of 4 biomechanical parameters on canine cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-intact and -deficient stifle joints.

SAMPLE Data for computer simulations of a healthy 5-year-old 33-kg neutered male Golden Retriever in a previously developed 3-D rigid body pelvic limb computer model simulating the stance phase during walking.

PROCEDURES Canine stifle joint biomechanics were assessed when biomechanical parameters (CrCL stiffness, CrCL prestrain, body weight, and stifle joint friction coefficient) were altered in the pelvic limb computer simulation model. Parameters were incrementally altered from baseline values to determine the influence on stifle joint outcome measures (ligament loads, relative tibial translation, and relative tibial rotation). Stifle joint outcome measures were compared between CrCL-intact and -deficient stifle joints for the range of parameters evaluated.

RESULTS In the CrCL-intact stifle joint, ligament loads were most sensitive to CrCL prestrain. In the CrCL-deficient stifle joint, ligament loads were most sensitive to body weight. Relative tibial translation was most sensitive to body weight, whereas relative tibial rotation was most sensitive to CrCL prestrain.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, computer model sensitivity analyses predicted that CrCL prestrain and body weight influenced stifle joint biomechanics. Cranial cruciate ligament laxity may influence the likelihood of CrCL deficiency. Body weight could play an important role in management of dogs with a CrCL-deficient stifle joint.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe and evaluate a new radiographic view of the elbow joint in dogs that would potentially enhance observation of the medial coronoid process (MCP).

Sample Population—20 cadaver limbs from 10 dogs and clinical examination of 100 elbow joints of 53 dogs.

Procedure—Twenty elbow joints from 10 cadavers were imaged by use of mediolateral, flexed mediolateral, craniocaudal, craniolateral-caudomedial oblique (Cr15L-CdMO), and distomedial-proximolateral oblique (Di35M-PrLO) radiographic views before and after placement of 3 lead pellets placed on the cranial, medial, and craniodistal aspect of the MCP. Three examiners independently reviewed these radiographs. One hundred elbow joints of 53 dogs with forelimb lameness and signs of pain elicited on palpation of the elbow joint were examined. These joints were radiographed and treated by use of arthroscopy. Three examiners independently graded the radiographs.

Results—The MCP was identified on all Di35M-PrLO views made during the anatomic study. The Di35M-PrLO view had the largest area under the receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curve for detection of abnormalities of the MCP. Fractured and nonfractured MCP could only be significantly differentiated on Di35M-PrLO and mediolateral views. The Di35M-PrLO view had a higher agreement between examiners than other radiographic views for detection of fractures of the MCP.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The Di35M-PrLO view enhances the identification of anomalies and fragmentation of the MCP in dogs, compared with other radiographic views. The Di35M-PrLO view may be of benefit for early screening of dogs potentially affected with elbow dysplasia. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1000–1005)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the reliability of goniometry by comparing goniometric measurements with radiographic measurements and evaluate the effects of sedation on range of joint motion.

Animals—16 healthy adult Labrador Retrievers.

Procedure—3 investigators blindly and independently measured range of motion of the carpus, elbow, shoulder, tarsus, stifle, and hip joints of 16 Labrador Retrievers in triplicate before and after dogs were sedated. Radiographs of all joints in maximal flexion and extension were made during under sedation. Goniometric measurements were compared with radiographic measurements. The influence of sedation and the intra- and intertester variability were evaluated; 95% confidence intervals for all ranges of motion were determined.

Results—Results of goniometric and radiographic measurements were not significantly different. Results of measurements made by the 3 investigators were not significantly different. Multiple measurements made by 1 investigator varied from 1 to 6° (median, 3°) depending on the joint. Sedation did not influence the range of motion of the evaluated joints.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Goniometry is a reliable and objective method for determining range of motion of joints in healthy Labrador Retrievers. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:979–986)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the influence of varying morphological parameters on canine stifle joint biomechanics by use of a 3-D rigid-body canine pelvic limb computer model that simulated an intact and cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)–deficient stifle joint across the stance phase of gait at a walk.

Sample—Data from computer simulations.

Procedures—Computer model morphological parameters, including patellar ligament insertion location, tibial plateau angle (TPA), and femoral condyle diameter (FCD), were incrementally altered to determine their influence on outcome measures (ligament loads, relative tibial translation, and relative tibial rotation) during simulation of the stance phase of gait at a walk. Outcome measures were assessed for each scenario and compared between an intact and CrCL-deficient stifle joint with the sensitivity index (the percentage change in outcome measure divided by the percentage change in input parameter).

Results—In a CrCL-intact stifle joint, ligament loads were most sensitive to TPA. In a CrCL-deficient stifle joint, outcome measures were most sensitive to TPA with the exception of caudal cruciate ligament and lateral collateral ligament loads, which were sensitive to FCD and TPA. Relative tibial translation was sensitive to TPA and patellar ligament insertion location, whereas relative tibial rotation was most sensitive to TPA.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The computer model sensitivity analyses predicted that individual parameters, particularly TPA and FCD, influence stifle joint biomechanics. Therefore, tibial and femoral morphological parameters may affect the likelihood, prevention, and management of CrCL deficiency.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe methods to measure the 3-D orientation of the proximal, diaphyseal, and distal segments of the canine radius by use of computer-aided design software (CADS) and to compare the repeatability and reliability of measurements derived by those methods.

SAMPLE

31 canine radii with biapical deformities and 24 clinically normal (control) canine radii.

PROCEDURES

Select CT scans of radii were imported into a CADS program. Cartesian coordinate systems for the humerus and proximal, diaphyseal, and distal radial segments were developed. The orientation of each radial segment in the frontal, sagittal, and transverse planes was measured in triplicate by 3 methods. The repeatability and reliability of those measurements were calculated and compared among the 3 measurement methods.

RESULTS

The mean ± SD within-subject repeatability of radial angular measurements for all 3 methods was 1.40 ± 0.67° in the frontal plane, 3.17 ± 2.21° in the sagittal plane, and 3.01 ± 1.11° in the transverse plane for control radii and 2.56 ± 1.95° in the frontal plane, 3.59 ± 2.39° in the sagittal plane, and 3.47 ± 1.19° in the transverse plane for abnormal radii. Mean ± SD bias between radial measurement methods was 1.88 ± 2.07° in the frontal plane, 6.44 ± 6.80° in the sagittal plane, and 2.27 ± 2.81° in the transverse plane.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that use of CADS to assess the 3-D orientation of the proximal, diaphyseal, and distal segments of normal and abnormal canine radii yielded highly repeatable and reliable measurements.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To design and manufacture free-form biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) bone plates and to compare mechanical properties of femoral constructs with a distal physeal fracture repaired by use of 5 stabilization methods.

Sample Population—40 canine femoral replicas created by use of additive manufacturing and rapid tooling.

Procedures—Surgery duration, mediolateral and craniocaudal bending stiffness, and torsional stiffness of femoral physeal fracture repair constructs made by use of 5 stabilization methods were assessed. The implants included 2 Kirschner wires inserted medially and 2 inserted laterally (4KW), a commercial stainless steel plate (CSP), a custom free-form titanium plate (CTP), thin (2-mm-thick) biodegradable PCL plates (TNP) placed medially and laterally, and thick (4-mm-thick) PCL plates (TKP) placed medially and laterally.

Results—Surgical placement of 4KW was more rapid than placement of other implants The mean caudal cantilever bending stiffness of CTP and CSP constructs was greater than that for TNP TKP and 4KW constructs, and the mean caudal cantilever bending stiffness of TNP and TKP constructs was greater than that for 4KW constructs. The mean lateral cantilever bending stiffness of TKP constructs was greater than that for 4KW constructs. Differences among construct types were not significant in yield strength, ultimate strength, yield torque, and ultimate torque.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The mechanical properties of fracture repair constructs made from free-form PCL biodegradable plates compared favorably with those of constructs made from Kirschner wires. The impact of PCL plates on musculoskeletal soft tissues, bone healing, and bone growth should be evaluated before clinical use.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research