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Objective—To determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against Coccidioides immitis in healthy horses residing in an area in which the organism is endemic.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—197 healthy horses (in which coccidioidomycosis had not been previously diagnosed) that resided in an area of Arizona in which coccidioidomycosis is endemic.

Procedure—Of the horses evaluated at the Arizona Equine Medical and Surgical Center during a 6-month period, 197 with no clinical signs of coccidioidomycosis were randomly selected for inclusion in the study; sera were evaluated for IgM and IgG antibodies against C immitis via an immunodiffusion assay (IgGpositive samples were assessed quantitatively). Within 6 months, recheck titer evaluations were attempted for all seropositive horses.

Results—Serum antibodies against C immitis were detected in 8 of 197 horses (seroprevalence, 4.06%). Results of serologic assays were positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM antibodies in 7 horses and positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies in 1 horse; reciprocal serum IgG antibody titers were low (none > 8). Follow-up serologic data were obtained from 5 horses; compared with initial findings, horses had become seronegative or titers were unchanged or decreased. Duration of residence in the area was significantly shorter for seropositive horses than for seronegative horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum antibodies against C immitis may rarely be detected in healthy horses residing in an area in which the disease is endemic; any horse with a detectable serum antibody titer should be reevaluated after an interval of at least 3 weeks. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1888–1892)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine clinical, clinicopathologic, and radiographic abnormalities in dogs with coccidioidomycosis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—24 dogs.

Procedure—Clinical information and results of clinicopathologic testing were obtained from medical records. Thoracic radiographs were reviewed to characterize abnormalities.

Results—Dogs ranged from 1 to 10 years old at the time of diagnosis, with 12 dogs being between 1 and 3 years old. Historical complaints included cough, lameness, signs of head or neck pain, and difficulty breathing. Mild anemia, neutrophilia, and monocytosis were common. All dogs had hypoalbuminemia, and 8 of 15 had hyperglobulinemia. Thoracic radiographs of 19 dogs were reviewed. Pulmonary infiltrates were seen in 13 dogs, with an interstitial pattern of infiltration being most common. Hilar lymphadenopathy was seen radiographically in 10 dogs. Serum from 20 dogs was tested for antibodies against Coccidioides immitis. One dog was positive for IgM antibodies, 5 were positive for IgM and IgG antibodies, and 14 were positive for IgG antibodies. Quantitative IgG titers measured in 14 dogs ranged from 1:2 to 1:128 (median and mode, 1:32). In 6 dogs, histologic examination of biopsy samples revealed fungal spherules ranging from 8 to 70 μm in diameter.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in dogs, coccidioidomycosis may be associated with a wide spectrum of nonspecific respiratory and musculoskeletal abnormalities. The chronic nature of the disease makes diagnosis difficult, even in regions in which the organism is endemic. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:461–466)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association