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Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A 16-year-old female hawk-headed parrot (Deroptyus accipitrinus) was evaluated because of beak trauma and difficulty eating.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a lateral tissue protrusion in the left half of the oropharyngeal cavity ventral to the proximal aspect of the maxillary tomium as well as a small bony prominence on the left jugal arch. Range of motion of the beak appeared normal. A CT scan of the skull revealed rostroventral displacement of the left palatine bone from the maxilla and left lateral subluxation and lateral luxation of the pterygoid-parasphenoid-palatine complex and pterygoid-palatine articulation, respectively; and transverse fractures of the ipsilateral pterygoid bone, jugal arch, and palatine bone.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Palatine bone displacement was reduced, and surgical fixation was achieved with an interfragmentary wire inserted through the rostral aspect of the affected palatine bone, maxilla, and rhinotheca. The lateral aspect of the wire was covered with dental acrylic. The wire was removed 2 weeks later owing to concerns over local vascular compromise and potential for infection. The bird started eating pelleted food approximately 3 months after surgery; full return of apparently normal beak function was regained by 10 months after surgery.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors’ knowledge, the described beak trauma and surgical approach have not previously been reported for Psittaciformes. Use of CT imaging was invaluable in diagnosing multiple traumatic bone abnormalities and planning surgical correction.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 13-year-old female white-crowned pionus (Pionus senilis) was examined because of seizures 22 months after it was treated for a traumatic brain injury (TBI) characterized by vision loss, hemiparesis, nystagmus, circling, and head tilt.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Bloodwork performed during the initial seizure workup revealed hypercalcemia and hypercholesterolemia, which were attributed to vitellogenesis given the bird's previous egg-laying history and recent onset of reproductive behavior. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed diffuse right pallium atrophy with multifocal hydrocephalus ex vacuo, which were believed to be the result of the previous TBI. Findings were most consistent with post-traumatic seizures (PTS).

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Levetiracetam (100 mg/kg [45 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) was initiated for PTS management. A 4.7-mg deslorelin implant was injected SC to suppress reproductive behavior. The bird was reexamined for presumed status epilepticus 5 times over 22 months. Seizure episodes coincided with onset of reproductive behavior. The levetiracetam dosage was increased (150 mg/kg [68 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h), and zonisamide (20 mg/kg [9.1 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) was added to the treatment regimen. Additional deslorelin implants were administered every 2 to 6 months to suppress reproductive behavior. The owner was trained to administer midazolam intranasally or IM as needed at home. The treatment regimen helped control but did not eliminate seizure activity. The bird was euthanized 22 months after PTS diagnosis for reasons unrelated to the TBI or PTS.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Long-term management of PTS in a pionus was achieved with levetiracetam and zonisamide administration.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old female pigeon was evaluated because of a 5-day history of lower than typical activity level, weight loss, and polyuria.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Whole-body radiography revealed a linear metallic foreign body in the area of the ventriculus. Fluoroscopy followed by contrast-enhanced CT was performed to further characterize the lesion location, revealing that the foreign body had perforated the ventral aspect of the ventriculus wall and that the ventral extremity of the foreign body was surrounded by a mass, consistent with a granuloma.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME A midline celiotomy was performed, and a large granuloma was identified ventral to the ventriculus, adherent to the dorsal aspect of the keel bone. The metallic foreign body (a nail) was removed, and the content of the granuloma was debrided. Amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (150 mg/kg [68.2 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h for 10 days), meloxicam (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h for 5 days), and sucralfate (100 mg/kg [45 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h for 10 days) were prescribed. The pigeon made a successful recovery and was still doing well at a 1-year recheck evaluation.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although traumatic gastritis in pigeons has been reported, use of advanced diagnostic imaging for the pigeon of this report facilitated identification of the precise nature of the lesion and, therefore, surgical planning. The outcome for this pigeon suggested that successful resolution of traumatic gastritis may be possible in other affected birds with surgery.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 5.5-year-old 0.929-kg spayed female domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) underwent serial abdominal ultrasonographic and clinicopathologic examinations after multiple renal cysts were detected bilaterally during a routine examination.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

The ferret was apparently healthy at the start of the monitoring period and had no clinical signs for > 20 months. Four months after the initial examination, the largest cyst became increasingly mineralized; 17 months after detection, it had increased in size and become amorphous, and the ferret’s plasma BUN concentration was mildly high. Within 21 months after the first visit, a nodule was detectable, and hydronephrosis developed in the kidney with the largest cyst. Findings for fine-needle aspirates from the nodule were consistent with renal carcinoma.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Contrast-enhanced CT revealed severe unilateral nephromegaly with no contrast uptake in the affected ureter. Following surgical removal of the affected kidney, histologic examination identified renal adenocarcinoma replacing the entire renal cortex and medulla. The ferret was euthanized postoperatively because of declining condition. On necropsy, metastasis to a mesenteric lymph node was identified; comorbidities included 2 other neoplasms and acute, severe injury of the contralateral kidney.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Neoplastic transformation of a renal cyst was suspected in the ferret of this report on the basis of observed ultrasonographic changes over time and extensive infiltration of the neoplasm throughout the affected kidney. Renal cysts are linked to renal neoplasia in other species, and the findings for this patient supported the need for periodic monitoring of renal cysts in ferrets.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess rheological properties and in vitro diffusion of poloxamer 407 (P407) and butorphanol-P407 (But-P407) hydrogels and to develop a sustained-release opioid formulation for use in birds.

SAMPLE P407 powder and a commercially available injectable butorphanol tartrate formulation (10 mg/mL).

PROCEDURES P407 and But-P407 gels were compounded by adding water or butorphanol to P407 powder. Effects of various concentrations of P407 (20%, 25% and 30% [{weight of P407/weight of diluent} × 100]), addition of butorphanol, and sterilization through a microfilter on rheological properties of P407 were measured by use of a rheometer. In vitro diffusion of butorphanol from But-P407 25% through a biological membrane was compared with that of a butorphanol solution.

RESULTS P407 20% and 25% formulations were easily compounded, whereas it was difficult to obtain a homogenous P407 30% formulation. The P407 was a gel at avian body temperature, although its viscosity was lower than that at mammalian body temperature. The But-P407 25% formulation (butorphanol concentration, 8.3 mg/mL) was used for subsequent experiments. Addition of butorphanol to P407 as well as microfiltration did not significantly affect viscosity. Butorphanol diffused in vitro from But-P407, and its diffusion was slower than that from a butorphanol solution.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE But-P407 25% had in vitro characteristics that would make it a good candidate for use as a sustained-release analgesic medication. Further studies are needed to characterize the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of But-P407 25% in vivo before it can be recommended for use in birds.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate incorporated into poloxamer 407 (P407) after SC administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

ANIMALS 11 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (6 males and 5 females; 11 to 27 years old).

PROCEDURES A sterile formulation of butorphanol in P407 (But-P407) 25% (percentage determined as [weight of P407/weight of diluent] × 100]) was created (8.3 mg/mL). Five preliminary experiments (2 birds/experiment) were performed to determine the ideal dose for this species. The formulation then was administered (12.5 mg/kg, SC) to 8 birds. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and 0.08, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Some birds were used more than once, with a washout period of ≥ 3 months between subsequent treatments. Butorphanol concentrations were quantitated by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by use of noncompartmental analysis.

RESULTS Maximal plasma butorphanol concentration was reached at 1.31 hours. Plasma concentrations of butorphanol remained > 100 ng/mL for > 3 hours (all birds) or > 4 hours (5/8 birds) but < 8 hours (all birds). Half-life of the terminal slope was 3.41 hours. No adverse effects were detected.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Butorphanol was absorbed well from the But-P407 25% by Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and absorption followed a pharmacokinetic profile compatible with a sustained-release drug. A dose of 12.5 mg/kg, SC, would theoretically provide analgesia for 4 to 8 hours. No adverse effects were detected. Studies on the pharmacodynamics of this formulation are necessary to confirm the degree and duration of analgesia.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the thermal antinociceptive effects of butorphanol tartrate and butorphanol tartrate in a sustained-release 25% poloxamer 407 (P407) gel formulation (But-P407) in parrots.

ANIMALS

13 orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica).

PROCEDURES

First, butorphanol tartrate (5 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was administered IM to birds in a randomized complete crossover design. The temperature prompting a foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus (ie, the thermal threshold) was determined 30 minutes before (baseline) and at various points after treatment administration. Second, But-P407 (12.5 mg/kg) or P407 was administered SC in a similar crossover design. Thermal threshold was determined before and at various points after treatment administration. Third, But-P407 (12.5 mg/kg) or saline solution was administered SC and evaluated as in the second trial. Sedation was scored immediately before each time point in all 3 trials.

RESULTS

In the first trial, a significant increase in thermal threshold was noted 30 minutes after butorphanol tartrate (vs saline solution) administration. No sedation was noted. In the second and third trials, no significant difference was identified between results for But-P407 and those for either control treatment (saline solution or P407). Mild sedation was noted in the second trial following But-P407 administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested a small but significant thermal antinociceptive effect of butorphanol tartrate lasting between 30 minutes and 1.5 hours in orange-winged Amazon parrots. No antinociceptive effect of butorphanol tartrate was demonstrated when delivered in P407. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential analgesic effects of But-P407.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research