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  • Author or Editor: Debrah A. Hines x
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To assess baseline cardiac electrophysiologic (EP) measurements in dogs undergoing a clinically used anesthetic protocol, and to study the effects of IV administered atropine and propranolol on these EP variables.


15 adult dogs with cardiac function within reference ranges, as assessed by physical examination, electrocardiography, and echocardiography.


13 cardiac EP variables were measured in isofluorane-anesthetized dogs before and after IV administration of atropine and propranolol. Multipolar electrode catheters were positioned against the endocardium of the dorsal portion of the right atrium, His bundle region, and right ventricular apex. Incremental pacing and pacing-extrastimulus techniques were used to obtain EP measurements of the sinoatrial node, atrioventricular node, and atrial and ventricular myocardia in the control state and after IV administration of 0.04 mg of atropine and 0.2 mg of propranolol/kg of body weight.


Only the atrial effective refractory period changed significantly after muscarinic and β-adrenergic receptor antagonism. Marked individual variation in response to these agents, however, was apparent. Two dogs had substantial decreases in sinoatrial and/or atrioventricular nodal measurements, and 7 dogs had notable increases in atrioventricular nodal measurements.


Cardiac EP measurements vary widely among clinically normal, isofluorane-anesthetized dogs. Individual dogs can have variable degrees of autonomic tone, which can be minimized by pharmacologic receptor antagonism.

Clinical Relevance

Although effects of receptor antagonism at clinically applicable dosages were not significant for 12 of 13 measurements, withdrawal of vagal tone can induce marked EP changes and may be important during a clinical study. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1695–1701)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research