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  • Author or Editor: Deborrah S. Higuchi x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine the comparative virulence of 5 isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type II by inoculating 6- to 9-month-old beef calves with isolates originating from the tissues of cattle affected with naturally occurring, transient, acute, nonfatal infections or naturally occurring, peracute, fatal infections.

Animals—22 calves that were 6 to 9 months old.

Procedure—The study used BVDV isolates 17011, 713, and 5521 that originated from fetuses aborted from cows with transient, nonfatal, acute BVDV infections and isolates 23025 and 17583 that originated from the tissues of cattle with peracute, fatal BVDV infections. Calves were allotted to 6 groups (1, mockinfected control calves [n = 2]; 2, inoculated with BVDV 17011 [4]; 3, inoculated with BVDV 713 [4]; 4, inoculated with BVDV 5521 [4]; 5, inoculated with BVDV 23025 [4]; and 6, inoculated with BVDV 17583 [4]). Rectal temperatures and clinical signs of disease were recorded daily. Total and differential WBC and platelet counts were performed. Histologic examination and immunohistochemical analysis were conducted to detect lesions and distribution of viral antigens, respectively.

Results—Calves inoculated with BVDV 23025 or 17583 developed more severe clinical signs of disease (fever and diarrhea), more severe lymphopenia, and more severe lesions (alimentary epithelial necrosis, lymphoid depletion, and BVDV antigen deposition in lymphatic tissues), compared with calves inoculated with BVDV 713, 5521, or 17011.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Relative severity of experimentally induced infections corresponded to severity of clinical signs of naturally occurring infections with respective BVDV isolates. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1379–1384)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare experimentally induced concurrent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine rotavirus (BRV) with infection of either virus alone in calves.

Animals—Seventeen 1-day-old gnotobiotic calves.

Procedure—Calves were allotted to 8 treatments as follows: group 1, mock-infected control calves (n = 2); group 2, inoculated with BVDV on day 1 (2); groups 3, 5, and 7, inoculated with BRV on days 1 (2), 4 (1), or 7 (2), respectively; and groups 4, 6, and 8, inoculated with BVDV on day 1 and with BRV on days 1 (2), 4 (2), or 7 (4), respectively. Concentrations of BVDV in serum and ileal tissues were measured, and BRV shedding in feces was determined. Histologic examination and immunohistochemical analysis were conducted to detect lesions and viral antigens.

Results—Neonatal calves inoculated with BVDV alone or with BVDV on day 1 and BRV on day 7 developed villus atrophy and submucosal inflammation of the intestines. Concurrent BVDV and BRV infections acted synergistically in the intestinal tract, causing more severe enteric disease than infection with either virus alone. Severe lymphoid depletion was associated with BVDV infection in calves regardlesss of concurrent BRV infection.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Infection with BVDV played direct and indirect roles in enteritis in neonatal calves, causing villus atrophy in the duodenum and submucosal inflammation of the intestines. Also, BVDV potentiated effects of BRV. Concurrent infection with BVDV and BRV resulted in more severe enteric disease in neonatal calves than infection with BRV or BVDV alone. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1179–1186)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research