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  • Author or Editor: Deborah S. Ramsey x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the clinical efficacy of dexmedetomidine as a preanesthetic medication administered prior to anesthetic induction with ketamine or propofol and with or without isoflurane for maintenance of anesthesia.

Design—Randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trial.

Animals—184 client-owned cats.

Procedures—Cats requiring general anesthesia for short or long procedures were assigned to receive 1 of 4 preanesthetic and induction drug combinations (dexmedetomidine and ketamine, placebo [saline {0.9% NaCl} solution] and ketamine, dexmedetomidine and propofol, or placebo and propofol). Cats undergoing long procedures received isoflurane for maintenance of anesthesia.

Results—Administration of dexmedetomidine prior to anesthetic induction with ketamine significantly increased the intubation success rate (57/64 [89%]), compared with the success rate for the placebo (4/37 [11 %]); significantly reduced the median induction dose of propofol (≤ 5.1 mg/kg [2.32 mg/lb]), compared with that for the placebo (≤ 10.5 mg/kg [4.77 mg/lb]); and significantly reduced the isoflurane concentration (1.5%) required for anesthesia maintenance, compared with that for the placebo (3.0%). Postoperatively, fewer cats receiving dexmedetomidine required rescue analgesia, and cats had lower pain scores for at least 2 hours after surgery, compared with results for cats receiving the placebo. Heart rate was lower during the procedure and respiratory rate and rectal temperature were lower during and after the procedure for cats receiving dexmedetomidine. More cats that received dexmedetomidine had emesis and pale mucous membranes, compared with the number of cats with those signs that received placebo.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dexmedetomidine as a preanesthetic was efficacious for clinical use in cats requiring general anesthesia.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether sublingual detomidine gel administration to horses would be effective in providing an appropriate degree of sedation and restraint to facilitate completion of veterinary and husbandry procedures under field conditions.

Design—Multicenter, prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical study.

Animals—270 client-owned horses known to require sedation or strong restraint to enable veterinary and husbandry procedures to be performed.

Procedures—Horses randomly received a single dose of detomidine gel (0.04 mg/kg [0.018 mg/lb]) or placebo gel administered sublingually. Horses were sedated to facilitate cleaning the prepuce, cutting of hair with electric clippers, hoof trimming or application of shoes, manual dental floating (ie, rasping or filing of the teeth to remove irregularities), nasogastric passage of a stomach tube or endoscope, and radiography. The primary determinant of efficacy was an assessment by a veterinarian on the ability or inability to successfully conduct the procedure.

Results—171 horses met all the study protocol criteria. One hundred twenty-nine horses were treated with detomidine. The procedure was completed successfully for 76% (98/129) of the detomidine-treated horses, while the procedure was completed successfully for only 7% (3/42) of the placebo-treated horses. The percentage of horses in which the procedure was successfully completed was significantly different between detomidine-treated horses and placebo-treated horses. No serious adverse effects were reported.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Detomidine gel administered to horses sublingually at a dose of 0.04 mg/kg provided an appropriate degree of sedation and restraint to facilitate completion of veterinary and husbandry procedures in horses known to require sedation for such procedures.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association