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  • Author or Editor: Deborah J. Davenport x
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Summary

Observations made during endoscopic evaluation of the stomach, duodenum, and colon of 58 dogs and 17 cats with a history of regurgitation, vomiting, and/or diarrhea were compared with results of histologic examination of tissues obtained during the procedures. Endoscopic observations included normal mucosa, alternations in mucosal color and texture, and luminal masses. Although endoscopy alone is a useful technique for detecting alterations of the gastrointestinal mucosa, histologic assessment of tissues obtained is necessary to confirm either an inflammatory or a neoplastic process.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of metoclopramide to aid passage of a flexible endoscope into the duodenum of dogs, and to determine whether the effect of metoclopramide is dependent on dose. In a randomized, blinded, complete-block design, 6 healthy dogs were anesthetized, then each was given saline solution or 1 of 4 doses of metoclopramide on different days. The - ease of passage of a flexible, fiberoptic gastroscope through the pylorus was assessed independently by 3 endoscopists.

Administration of metoclopramide hydrochloride at a dosage of 0.4 mg/kg of body weight, iv, made passage of a flexible endoscope into the duodenum significantly (P= 0.009) more difficult than when, saline solution was administered; however, dosages of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.8 mg of metoclopramide/kg did not (P = 0.489, 0.842, and 0.092 respectively). It was concluded that metoclopramide did not facilitate, and at one dosage hindered, successful passage of a flexible endoscope into the duodenum of healthy dogs under the conditions of the study. Metoclopramide, therefore, cannot be recommended as an aid for passage of a flexible endoscope into the duodenum of dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Modification of gastroduodenal motility has been proposed to aid endoscopic examination of the duodenum in dogs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the following pharmacologic agents for facilitation of endoscopic intubation of the duodenum in 6 clinically normal dogs: metoclopramide HCl (0.2 mg/kg of body weight), atropine sulfate (0.045 mg/kg), glucagon (0.06 mg/kg), and isotonic saline solution.

In a randomized, blinded, crossover design, the ease of endoscopic duodenal intubation was qualitatively scored by 3 endoscopists (in random order), using the following scale: immediate entry; rapid entry—moderate manipulation; difficult entry—multiple attempts; and no entry after 2 minutes. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental and maintained with halothane. The 4 agents were diluted to a fixed volume and randomly administered. Duodenal intubation was attempted 2 minutes after iv injection of 1 of the agents. Four endoscopic procedures (1 for each agent) were performed on each dog with a minimum of 5 days between each procedure.

In this study, no agent facilitated endoscopic duodenal intubation at the dose used. Instead, atropine and metoclopramide made duodenal intubation significantly more difficult, compared with use of saline solution. Difference between intubation after administration of glucagon and saline solution was not seen. On the basis of our findings, the use of these agents for facilitating endoscopic duodenal intubation is not recommended.

In addition, in this study, we found that experience in endoscopic intubation is an important factor in determining the ease of duodenal intubation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To evaluate the effect of a high insolublefiber (HF) diet containing 12% cellulose in dry matter and a low insoluble-fiber (LF) diet on control of glycemia in dogs with naturally acquired insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

Design

Prospective randomized crossover controlled trial.

Animals

11 dogs with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus.

Procedure

Dogs were fed HF and LF diets for 8 months each in 1 of 2 randomly assigned diet sequences. Caloric intake and insulin treatment were adjusted as needed to maintain stable body weight and control of glycemia, respectively. After a 2-month adaptation period, control of glycemia was evaluated every 6 weeks for 6 months. Variables assessed included serum glucose concentration measured during the preprandial state, blood glycosylated hemoglobin concentration, serum glucose concentration measured every 2 hours for 24 hours beginning at the time of the morning insulin injection, 24-hour mean serum glucose concentration, mean serum glucose concentration fluctuation from the 24-hour mean serum glucose concentration, and 24-hour urinary excretion of glucose.

Results

Significant differences in mean daily caloric intake, body weight, or daily insulin dosage among dogs fed HF and LF diets were not found. Mean preprandial serum glucose concentration, most postprandial serum glucose concentrations, 24-hour mean serum glucose concentration, and 24-hour urinary excretion of glucose were significantly lower in dogs fed the HF diet, compared with the LF diet.

Clinical Implications

Results of this study support feeding of commercially available insoluble fiber diets to dogs with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212:380-386)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine how long serum concentrations of ω-3 fatty acids remain elevated after cessation of dietary fish oil supplementation.

Animals

12 healthy Beagles.

Procedure

Baseline serum concentrations of linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were measured. Dogs were then fed a diet supplemented with soybean oil or fish oil for 8 weeks, and serum fatty acid concentrations were measured while dogs were fed the experimental diets and for 18 weeks after they were switched to a maintenance diet.

Results

For dogs fed the fish oil diet, serum EPA and DHA concentrations were significantly increased by week 1 and remained increased for 7 (DHA concentration) or 3 (EPA concentration) weeks after dietary fish oil supplementation was discontinued.

Conclusions

In dogs, supplementation of the diet with fish oil may have effects for several weeks after dietary supplementation is discontinued.

Clinical Relevance

Studies of the effects of fish oil supplementation that use a crossover design should allow for an appropriate washout period. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:864–868)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of dietary insoluble fiber on control of glycemia in cats with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus.

Design—Randomized controlled crossover trial.

Animals—16 cats with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus.

Procedure—Cats were fed a diet high in insoluble fiber (HF) containing 12% cellulose (dry-matter basis) or a diet low in insoluble fiber (LF) for 24 weeks; they were fed the other diet for the subsequent 24 weeks. Caloric intake and insulin treatment were adjusted to maintain stable body weight and control of glycemia, respectively. Cats were allowed an adaption period of 6 weeks after initiation of a diet, after which control of glycemia was evaluated at 6-week intervals for 18 weeks. Variables assessed included serum glucose concentration measured during the preprandial state, blood glycated hemoglobin concentration, serum glucose concentration measured at 2-hour intervals for 12 hours beginning at the time of the morning insulin injection, 12-hour mean serum glucose concentration, and mean fluctuation in serum glucose concentration from the 12-hour mean serum glucose concentration.

Results—Mean daily caloric intake, body weight, or daily insulin dosage did not differ significantly between cats when fed HF and LF diets. Mean preprandial serum glucose concentration, most postprandial serum glucose concentrations, and the 12-hour mean serum glucose concentration were significantly lower when cats consumed the HF diet, compared with values when cats consumed the LF diet.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These results support feeding a commercially available diet containing approximately 12% insoluble fiber (dry-matter basis) to cats with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1082–1088)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association