Objective—To evaluate the effects of atipamezole hydrochloride on recovery and analgesia following ovariohysterectomy in cats anesthetized with a dexmedetomidine hydrochloride, ketamine hydrochloride, and hydromorphone hydrochloride combination, in accordance with fast-track surgery principles.
Design—Prospective, randomized, clinical trial.
Procedures—Cats were anesthetized with a combination of dexmedetomidine (15 μg/kg [6.8 μg/lb]), ketamine (5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb]), and hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg [0.023 mg/lb]), IM, supplemented with isoflurane in oxygen. Immediately after ovariohysterectomy, cats received meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb]) SC and either atipamezole (75 μg/kg [34.1 μg/lb]) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution IM. Pain and sedation were scored at baseline (prior to surgery) and at predetermined intervals after surgery. Time to sternal recumbency was recorded.
Results—The atipamezole group recovered to sternal recumbency faster (median, 15 minutes; range, 5 to 60 minutes) than the saline solution group (median, 60 minutes; range, 15 to 90 minutes]). Pain scores did not differ between groups or at any time, compared with baseline, and were below the intervention threshold for most cats. Sedation scores were significantly greater in the saline solution group (median, 0; range, 0 to 2) at 2 hours after surgery, compared with the atipamezole group (median, 0; range, 0 to 0).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that administration of atipamezole, compared with saline solution, allowed for a faster recovery from anesthesia with dexmedetomidine-ketamine-hydromorphone in cats following ovariohysterectomy without compromising analgesia. These findings have implications for the provision of appropriate postoperative analgesia following ovariohysterectomy in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;246:645–653)
Case Description—A 6-month-old male Bactrian camel was examined because of a 3-week history of lameness of the left hind limb.
Clinical Findings—Lameness was initially detected in the left hind limb but resolved and was detected in the right hind limb during treatment. Lameness increased during periods of rapid growth. Radiography revealed multiple small opacities of the medullary cavity of several long bones throughout treatment. Core bone biopsies of lesions in the tibiae revealed lamellar bone with areas of loose connective tissue, osteoblasts in the medullary cavity, and periosteal new bone formation, all which were consistent with panosteitis.
Treatment and Outcome—Palliative treatment was attempted with epidural and transdermal administration of analgesics. Flunixin meglumine was administered PO, which coincided with an abrupt increase in serum creatinine concentration. Performance of multiple diagnostic bone biopsies led to remission of clinical signs of pain.
Clinical Relevance—Panosteitis should be a differential diagnosis for shifting limb lameness in young camels. Bone biopsies can be useful for diagnosis of panosteitis and possible relief of pain associated with the disease. Bactrian camels may be susceptible to the renal toxicity of flunixin meglumine, especially when dehydrated.