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Summary

The third article of this 4-part series discusses drug therapy in cats by therapeutic category. Specifically, the use of drugs to control infections, pain, fever, inflammation, cancer, and selected parasites is described. In addition, the use of hormonally related drugs and selected miscellaneous drugs in cats is addressed. Drugs emphasized are those for which use in cats is frequently associated with adverse reactions or drugs for which use is limited to illnesses that tend to be unique in cats.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The goal of this series of articles has been to provide a comprehensive review of the literature regarding recommended dosing regimens, therapeutic indications and contraindications, and potential side effects of drugs used in cats. In this fourth and last article, the available information regarding dosage regimens in cats has been consolidated in tabular form to facilitate an effective and rational approach to the pharmacologic prevention and treatment of a variety of feline medical disorders.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

In the second part of this 4-part series, drug therapy in cats is discussed by use of a systems approach. Specifically, drugs that can be used safely for treatment of disorders affecting the feline gastrointestinal, central nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, and urogenital systems are described. Many drugs that are used in dogs can be safely used in cats according to the same or similar dosing regimens. Several drugs that have traditionally been considered inappropriate (eg, morphine derivatives, primidone) can probably also be used, if cautiously, in cats. In contrast, use of several drugs that are safely used in other species should be avoided in cats (eg, selected emetics and antiemetics, phosphate salt enemas, and selected urinary antiseptics). Cats are more sensitive than dogs to the adverse side effects of a variety of drugs (eg, aspirin, digoxin, selected antiarrhythmics), and extra precautions must be taken when these drugs are used in cats. Finally, several drugs are used for the treatment of illnesses that tend to be unique to cats (eg, taurine and calcium-channel blockers in selected feline cardiovascular disorders).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

This is the first of a 4-part series concerning drug therapy in cats. In this article, factors that may increase the incidence of type-A adverse drug reactions in cats are discussed. Factors related to species and age differences, drug interactions, and the effects of disease are emphasized. Those that tend to be unique to cats, such as species-induced differences in drug disposition, are described in detail when sufficient information was available from the literature. General recommendations regarding drug administration are made, which will facilitate the implementation of rational drug therapy in cats, thus reducing the incidence of adverse reactions.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To establish a dosing regimen for potassium bromide and evaluate use of bromide to treat spontaneous seizures in cats.

Design—Prospective and retrospective studies.

Animals—7 healthy adult male cats and records of 17 cats with seizures.

Procedure—Seven healthy cats were administered potassium bromide (15 mg/kg [6.8 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) until steady-state concentrations were reached. Serum samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were obtained weekly until bromide concentrations were not detectable. Clinical data were obtained from records of 17 treated cats.

Results—In the prospective study, maximum serum bromide concentration was 1.1 ± 0.2 mg/mL at 8 weeks. Mean disappearance half-life was 1.6 ± 0.2 weeks. Steady state was achieved at a mean of 5.3 ± 1.1 weeks. No adverse effects were detected and bromide was well tolerated. In the retrospective study, administration of bromide (n = 4) or bromide and phenobarbital (3) was associated with eradication of seizures in 7 of 15 cats (serum bromide concentration range, 1.0 to 1.6 mg/mL); however, bromide administration was associated with adverse effects in 8 of 16 cats. Coughing developed in 6 of these cats, leading to euthanasia in 1 cat and discontinuation of bromide administration in 2 cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Therapeutic concentrations of bromide are attained within 2 weeks in cats that receive 30 mg/kg/d (13.6 mg/lb/d) orally. Although somewhat effective in seizure control, the incidence of adverse effects may not warrant routine use of bromide for control of seizures in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1131–1135)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare efficacy and safety of treatment with phenobarbital or bromide as the first-choice antiepileptic drug (AED) in dogs.

Design—Double-blinded, randomized, parallel, clinical trial.

Animals—46 AED-naïve dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy.

Procedures—Study inclusion was based on age, history, findings on physical and neurologic examinations, and clinicopathologic test results. For either phenobarbital treatment (21 dogs) or bromide treatment (25), a 7-day loading dose period was initiated along with a maintenance dose, which was adjusted on the basis of monthly monitoring. Efficacy and safety outcomes were compared between times (baseline and study end [generally 6 months]) and between drugs.

Results—Phenobarbital treatment resulted in eradication of seizures (17/20 [85%]) significantly more often than did bromide (12/23 [52%]); phenobarbital treatment also resulted in a greater percentage decrease in seizure duration (88 ± 34%), compared with bromide (49 ± 75%). Seizure activity worsened in 3 bromide-treated dogs only. In dogs with seizure eradication, mean ± SD serum phenobarbital concentration was 25 ± 6 μg/mL (phenobarbital dosage, 4.1 ± 1.1 mg/kg [1.9 ± 0.5 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) and mean serum bromide concentration was 1.8 ± 0.6 mg/mL (bromide dosage, 31 ± 11 mg/kg [14 ± 5 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h). Ataxia, lethargy, and polydipsia were greater at 1 month for phenobarbital-treated dogs; vomiting was greater for bromide-treated dogs at 1 month and study end.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both phenobarbital and bromide were reasonable first-choice AEDs for dogs, but phenobarbital was more effective and better tolerated during the first 6 months of treatment.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

To measure tracheal mucociliary transport rate (tmtr) in awake dogs, restrained in dorsal recumbency 99mtechnetium-labeled macroaggregated albumin was administered by tracheal injection, and the cephalic movement of boluses containing the radiopharmaceutical was detected by a gamma camera positioned lateral to the dog's head and neck. The distance traveled by each bolus was measured, relative to external markers placed a known distance apart. Tracheal mucociliary transport rates were calculated by dividing the measured distance of radiopharmaceutical movement by elapsed time. The technique was efficient and well tolerated. Mean (± sd) tmtr was 35.3 ± 15.9 mm/min. Significant (P = 0.029) difference in tmtr was found between males and females, but significant difference attributable to age of the dog was not detected. This method of measuring tmtr in awake dogs has potential for evaluation of clinical animal patients with suspected tracheal mucociliary abnormalities.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Dispositions of caffeine and antipyrine were compared as indicators of decreasing hepatic function in dogs with experimentally induced progressive liver disease. Dimethylnitrosamine, a hepatospecific toxin, was administered orally to 16 dogs; 6 dogs served as controls (group 1). Three classes of liver disease were defined by histologic features: mild (group 2; n = 5), moderate (group 3; n = 6), and severe (group 4; n = 5). Disposition of antipyrine, and 24 hours later, caffeine was studied 3 weeks after the last dose of toxin in each dog. For both drugs, rapid IV administration of 20 mg/kg of body weight was administered and serum samples were obtained at intervals for determination of at least 5 terminal-phase drug half-lives. For both drugs, clearance and mean residence time differed among groups (P ≤ 0.01). Clearance of antipyrine and caffeine was decreased in groups 3 and 4, compared with groups 1 and 2. Antipyrine and caffeine mean residence times were longer in group-3 dogs, compared with dogs of groups 1 and 2. Correction of caffeine and antipyrine clearances for hepatic weight increased discrimination between groups 3 and 4. The clearance and mean residence time ratios of antipyrine to caffeine were calculated for each group and, when compared with values for group-1 dogs, were used to test for differences between the 2 drugs in response to disease. Ratios did not differ among groups. These results indicate that the disposition of antipyrine and caffeine may change similarly with progression of dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver disease.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research