OBJECTIVE To compare effectiveness of glycerol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solutions for cryopreservation of avian RBCs.
SAMPLE RBCs from 12 healthy Ameraucana hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).
PROCEDURES RBCs were stored in 20% (wt/vol) glycerol, 10% (wt/vol) DMSO freezing medium, or various concentrations of HES solution (7.5%, 11.5%, and 20% [wt/vol]) and frozen for 2 months in liquid nitrogen. Cells were then thawed and evaluated by use of cell recovery and saline stability tests, cell staining (7-aminoactinomycin D and annexin V) and flow cytometry, and scanning electron microscopy.
RESULTS Percentage of RBCs recovered was highest for 20% glycerol solution (mean ± SE, 99.71 ± 0.04%) and did not differ significantly from the value for 7.5% HES solution (99.57 ± 0.04%). Mean saline stability of RBCs was highest for 10% DMSO (96.11 ± 0.25%) and did not differ significantly from the value for 20% HES solution (95.74 ± 0.25%). Percentages of cells with 7-aminoactinomycin D staining but without annexin V staining (indicating necrosis or late apoptosis) were lowest for 10% DMSO freezing medium (3%) and 20% glycerol solution (1%) and highest for all HES concentrations (60% to 80%). Scanning electron microscopy revealed severe membrane changes in RBCs cryopreserved in 20% HES solution, compared with membrane appearance in freshly harvested RBCs and RBCs cryopreserved in 10% DMSO freezing medium.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cryopreservation of avian RBCs with HES solution, regardless of HES concentration, resulted in greater degrees of apoptosis and cell death than did cryopreservation with other media. Transfusion with RBCs cryopreserved in HES solution may result in posttransfusion hemolysis in birds.
To compare concentrations of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in aqueous humor from ophthalmologically normal dogs and dogs with naturally occurring primary angle-closure glaucoma (cPACG).
Aqueous humor samples from 12 eyes with cPACG and 18 ophthalmologically normal eyes of dogs.
A multiplex fluorescence-based ELISA was used to measure concentrations of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-13, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and TIMP-4. Results for eyes with versus without cPACG were compared.
Significantly higher mean concentrations of MMP-1 (45% higher), MMP-2 (55% higher), MMP-3 (39% higher), MMP-8 (79% higher), MMP-9 (29% higher), MMP-10 (60% higher), TIMP-1 (63% higher), and TIMP-2 (136% higher) were detected in aqueous humor from eyes with cPACG, compared with ophthalmologically normal eyes.
MMPs and TIMPs have pivotal roles in extracellular matrix turnover and homeostasis in the outflow pathways of the eye. Results of the present study documented higher concentrations of MMPs and TIMPs in aqueous humor samples from dog eyes with late-stage cPACG. Although, to our knowledge, TIMPs have not previously been evaluated in the context of cPACG, the markedly higher concentration of TIMPs in eyes with cPACG suggested that inhibition of proteolysis and extracellular matrix turnover might be a factor in the development of glaucoma in susceptible individuals. However, because the present study used samples from dogs with late-stage cPACG, further work is required to characterize the temporal relationship between MMP and TIMP concentration changes and onset or progression of disease.
To evaluate whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be safely administered IV to dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) to improve cardiac function and prolong survival time.
10 client-owned dogs with CHF secondary to MMVD.
Dogs with an initial episode of CHF secondary to MMVD were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Five dogs in the MSC group received allogeneic Wharton jelly–derived MSCs (2 X 106 cells/kg, IV), and 5 dogs in the placebo group received a 1% solution of autologous serum (IV) for 3 injections 3 weeks apart. Cell-release criteria included trilineage differentiation, expression of CD44 and CD90 and not CD34 and major histocompatability complex class II, normal karyotype, and absence of contamination by pathogenic microorganisms. Patients were followed for 6 months or until death or euthanasia. Echocardiographic data, ECG findings, serum cardiac biomarker concentrations, CBC, and serum biochemical analysis results were obtained prior to and 4 hours after the first injection and every 3 months after the final injection.
Lymphocyte and eosinophil counts decreased significantly 4 hours after injection, and monocytes decreased significantly only in dogs that received an MSC injection. No significant differences were seen in the echocardiographic variables, ECG results, serum cardiac biomarker concentrations, survival time, and time to first diuretic drug dosage escalation between the 2 groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
This study showed that MSCs can be easily collected from canine Wharton jelly as an allogeneic source of MSCs and can be safely delivered IV to dogs with CHF secondary to MMVD.