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Abstract

Factors associated with foot abscess were evaluated in a cohort of 3,322 suckling pigs reared on a woven-wire floor (wire diameter, 0.5 cm; size of openings, 1 × 3.8 cm). In bivariate analysis, foot abscess was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with post-partum sow illness, number of pigs born alive, and parity, but not with birthweight (P = 0.31) or time spent on wire flooring (P = 0.89). One oxytetracycline treatment (100 mg, im) at birth or 1 treatment at birth and a second 5 to 7 days later reduced (P < 0.05) the risk of lesions by about half. Multivariate analyses indicated that pigs in large litters (> 10 pigs at birth) born to sows with postpartum illnesses had an increased risk (relative risk [rr], 3.77) of developing foot abscess, compared with pigs in small litters (≤ 10 pigs) born to unaffected sows. For sows without evidence of postpartum illness, pigs in large litters had a slightly increased risk (rr, 1.32) of developing foot abscess, compared with pigs in small litters. Pigs born to multiparous sows also had an increased risk (rr, 1.69) of developing foot abscess, compared with pigs born to primiparous sows. Similar risk estimates were obtained when logistic regression models included location farrowed (crate number) as fixed effect, and when litter was a random effect in a logistic-binomial regression.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

In a pet store, 6- to 18-week-old dogs were examined for congenital abnormalities. Of those pups offered for sale over a 2-year period (1987 and 1988), 15% (253/1,679) had at least 1 congenital defect, and 1.5% (26/1,679) had multiple congenital abnormalities. Defects observed and their respective rates were patellar luxation, 7.2% (121/1,679); cardiac abnormalities characterized by murmurs, 0.7% (11/1,679); palpebral abnormalities, 3.0% (50/1,679); inguinal hernia, 1.3% (22/1,679); umbilical hernia, 0.6% (10/1,679); faciodental malformations, 1.3% (21/1,679); and cryptorchidism, 2.6% (44/1,679). Rates of congenital abnormalities in pups from this study were higher than published rates in adult dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

A prospective cohort study was undertaken in a farrow-to-farrow swine herd to describe patterns of pneumonia, and to identify host risk factors associated with the extent of pneumonic lesions in 2 weight groups of slaughter swine.

The risk of coughing and pneumonic lesions increased with increasing age of pigs within the herd (P < 0.0001). The age-specific prevalence of pneumonic lesions was low (2.7%) in pigs < 16 weeks old at slaughter, but increased rapidly when pigs were were between 16 and 22 weeks old (8.6 to 67.9%). After 22 weeks, the prevalence remained relatively constant at about 80%.

Associations between possible risk factors and pneumonia were investigated by use of multiple-regression models. Age at weaning (< 24 days) and birth weight (< 1 kg) exerted small, but significant (P < 0.002), effects on the extent of pneumonic lesions in pigs slaughtered at 30 to 50 kg live weight. For pigs slaughtered at 90 to 110 kg, pneumonic lesions were more extensive (P = 0.007) in pigs sired by Yorkshire boars than pigs sired by non-Yorkshire sires (Duroc, Hampshire, Chester White, or American Spotted). Other host factor variables including weaning weight and clinical diseases (atrophic rhinitis, diarrhea, and arthritis) were not associated with pneumonia extent in either weight group. Higher pneumonia percentages were also associated with reduced growth rates in the grower/finisher phase. Pigs sired by Yorkshire boars grew significantly (P < 0.0001) more slowly from entry into shed 2 (mean, 38 kg) until about the time of exit (mean, 92 kg) than pigs sired by other breeds (747 g/d and 795 g/d, respectively).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize serum biochemical abnormalities in goats with uroliths.

Design—Retrospective case-control series.

Animals—107 male goats with uroliths and 94 male goats with various nonrenal diseases (controls).

Procedures—For male goats, results of serum biochemical analyses collected from 1992 through 2003 were retrieved from computerized records, as were signalment, clinical diagnoses, and discharge status. Results of analyses for BUN, creatinine, phosphorus, calcium, Na, K, Cl, total CO2, anion gap, and glucose were compared between goats with uroliths and control goats.

Results—Goats with uroliths had higher mean BUN, creatinine, total CO2, K, and glucose concentrations and lower mean phosphorus, Na, and Cl concentrations than control goats, with no difference in mean calcium concentration and anion gap. Goats with uroliths had higher frequency of azotemia, hypophosphatemia, hypochloridemia, and increased total CO2 and lower frequency of decreased total CO2 than control goats. Urolithiasis occurred more frequently in castrated males than in sexually intact males and in dwarf African breeds than in other breeds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Goats with uroliths often had hypophosphatemia at admission. Hypochloridemic metabolic alkalosis was the most common acid-base disorder. Rupture in the urinary tract system was associated with increased prevalence of hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. Clinicians should be aware of these abnormalities when determining fluid therapy.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess perceptions of state public health officers and state veterinarians in the United States regarding the risks of bioterrorism and determine the degree of support provided for activities related to bioterrorism.

Design—Cross-sectional survey.

Sample Population—State public health officers and state veterinarians.

Procedure—A questionnaire was sent between April and June 2001 to the state public health officer and state veterinarian in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Results—Perceptions of the risk of bioterrorism attacks were similar for state public health officers and state veterinarians. Veterinarians perceived the risks associated with foot-and-mouth disease and Newcastle disease to be higher than did physicians. State veterinarians perceived the risks associated with an anthrax hoax, brucellosis, and ricin toxicosis to be lower than did state public health officers. Risk posed by agents that affected animals exclusively was perceived to be higher than risk posed by agents that affected humans exclusively and zoonotic agents. Number of full-time-equivalent positions devoted to bioterrorism surveillance and percentage of the budget devoted to bioterrorism activities were significantly lower for offices run by state veterinarians than for offices run by state public health officers. State veterinarians were significantly less likely to be aware of actual bioterrorism incidents within their state or district than were state public health officers.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Provision of additional resources to state veterinarians and explicit integration of their expertise and surveillance capabilities may be important to effectively mitigate the risk of bioterrorism. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1782–1787)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Of 2,958 pigs from a 320-sow, farrow-to-finish herd that were evaluated from birth to slaughter, 44 (1.5%) developed umbilical hernias. Hernias were detected mostly (34/44) when the pigs were between 9 and 14 weeks of age and were not fatal despite lack of treatment. Among littermates, weight gain prior to weaning was significantly (P = 0.04) lower in pigs that developed hernias (144.7 g/d) by 30 weeks of age than for nonaffected pigs (163.3 g/d), but growth rates from weaning to about 45 kg did not differ significantly.

Records of pigs sired by 13 purebred boars were used to evaluate breed-of-sire associations. Pigs sired by American Spotted (n = 19; relative risk [rr] = 8.3; 95% confidence interval [ci] = 2.1 to 32.7) and Duroc boars (n = 378; rr = 2.1; 95% ci = 1.0 to 4.5) were more likely to develop umbilical hernias than were pigs (n = 1,644) sired by Yorkshire boars. Umbilical lesions (omphalitis or umbilical abscess) were associated (rr = 7.6; 95% ci = 1.2 to 49.5) with umbilical herniation on an individual basis, but the association was not evident (rr = 1.2; 95% ci = 0.2 to 7.6) when the litter was the unit of analysis. Analysis of sire associations, stratified by umbilical lesion status, indicated increased risks in the nonlesioned stratum for the American Spotted (rr = 8.7) and Duroc sires (rr = 2.2). Adequate comparisons of sire breed in the lesioned stratum could not be made, because umbilical lesions were an infrequent finding (9/2,958). For Yorkshire-sired pigs, there was a 13.7 times higher risk (95% ci = 2.2 to 86.1) of umbilical hernias if the pig had an umbilical lesion earlier in life. Significant (P < 0.05) associations were not evident between umbilical hernia and sex, or prophylactic treatment with Oxytetracycline. Findings from the study provided support for genetic and infectious hypotheses for umbilical hernias.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Milk culture data and serologic test results were evaluated after adult vaccination with Brucella abortus strain 19 in cattle of 3 large California dairy herds infected with brucellosis. Strain-19 organisms were isolated by culture of milk from 1.9% of the vaccinated cows. Isolation of field strain of B abortus varied directly with magnitude of complement-fixation (cf) and rivanol titers. At time of milk culture, 74% of cows from which field strain was isolated had cf titer ≥ 160, compared with 58% of cows from which strain 19 was isolated. Cows with cf titer ≥160 at 2 months or ≥80 to 4 months after adult vaccination were more likely to be correctly classified as reactors (on the basis of subsequent milk culture results and/or persistently high serologic titer) than were cows with lower cf titer at these times. Cows from which B abortus strain 19 was isolated from milk were more likely to maintain persistent serologic titer than were cows from which neither strain of B abortus was isolated.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A longitudinal study was undertaken in a swine herd with an ever-present problem of foot abscess in suckling pigs reared on a woven-wire floor. Of 3,322 4-day-old pigs, 199 (6%) developed abscess lesions involving claws and accessory digits before weaning. Lesions were first detected in 4-day-old pigs; median and mean ages at onset were 10 and 11.3 days, respectively. At first detection, most pigs had only a single claw affected, but 39 pigs had at least 2 claws with abscesses. Hind limbs had more affected claws (140) than forelimbs (96). In the hind limbs, medial claws were most likely to have lesions, whereas the reverse was true for the forelimbs. Gross and microscopic examinations of affected claws indicated necrotic pododermatitis, with severe osteomyelitis, arthritis, and tenosynovitis. Bacteria isolated from foot abscess lesions included Actinomyces pyogenes, Staphylococcus spp, β-hemolytic Streptococcus spp, Actinobacillus spp, Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium spp, Bacteroides spp, and Peptostreptococcus spp.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether combined parenteral and oral administration of oxytetracycline would ameliorate a herd outbreak of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) and to compare efficacy of this regimen with that of subconjunctival administration of procaine penicillin G.

Design

Randomized field trial.

Animals

119 Hereford calves in a herd undergoing a naturally occurring outbreak of IBK.

Procedure

Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 groups: oxytetracycline treatment, procaine penicillin G treatment, and control. After initial treatment, calves were examined 3 times/wk for 7 weeks. The surface area of all corneal ulcers was measured during each examination. Ocular secretions were collected from all calves at least weekly and were tested for Moraxella bovis.

Results

Calves treated with oxytetracycline had a lower prevalence of IBK than did calves treated with procaine penicillin G or control calves and required fewer additional treatments than did calves treated with procaine penicillin G. Mean time for healing of corneal ulcers was significantly less for calves that received oxytetracycline or procaine penicillin G than for control calves. Calves treated with oxytetracycline developed fewer corneal ulcers and fewer recurrent ulcers than did calves in the other groups. Moraxella bovis was isolated less often from ocular secretions collected from calves in the oxytetracycline group than from calves in the other groups.

Clinical Implications

Combined parenteral and oral administration of oxytetracycline appears to be an effective method of reducing severity of a herd outbreak of IBK and may be superior to treatment of affected animals with procaine penicillin G. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212:560-563)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Pasteurella multocida isolated from turkeys during an outbreak of fowl cholera was characterized by serotype and heterogeneity of genes encoding rrna (ribotype) to investigate the epidemiology of the organism. Isolates were collected between October 1985 and July 1986. The M9 or Clemson University fowl cholera vaccine-like strain was detected in 17% of the flocks with fowl cholera. One particular strain, isolated only from breeder flocks, was recovered from 7 of the 10 breeder flocks examined in this study. Intracompany transmission appeared to be common, implying a failure in biosecurity. Circumstantial evidence indicated that in the field, the incubation period of P multocida in a turkey flock may be between 2 to 7 weeks. Wildlife did not appear to be an important reservoir of P multocida for turkeys during this study period. Ribotyping results tended to discount several of the possible interflock transmissions, as suggested by examination of serotyping results alone; however, serotyping in combination with ribotyping proved helpful in understanding the epidemiology of P multocida in turkeys.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research