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  • Author or Editor: David W. Hird x
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Abstract

Objective—To assess perceptions of state public health officers and state veterinarians in the United States regarding the risks of bioterrorism and determine the degree of support provided for activities related to bioterrorism.

Design—Cross-sectional survey.

Sample Population—State public health officers and state veterinarians.

Procedure—A questionnaire was sent between April and June 2001 to the state public health officer and state veterinarian in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Results—Perceptions of the risk of bioterrorism attacks were similar for state public health officers and state veterinarians. Veterinarians perceived the risks associated with foot-and-mouth disease and Newcastle disease to be higher than did physicians. State veterinarians perceived the risks associated with an anthrax hoax, brucellosis, and ricin toxicosis to be lower than did state public health officers. Risk posed by agents that affected animals exclusively was perceived to be higher than risk posed by agents that affected humans exclusively and zoonotic agents. Number of full-time-equivalent positions devoted to bioterrorism surveillance and percentage of the budget devoted to bioterrorism activities were significantly lower for offices run by state veterinarians than for offices run by state public health officers. State veterinarians were significantly less likely to be aware of actual bioterrorism incidents within their state or district than were state public health officers.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Provision of additional resources to state veterinarians and explicit integration of their expertise and surveillance capabilities may be important to effectively mitigate the risk of bioterrorism. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1782–1787)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize serum biochemical abnormalities in goats with uroliths.

Design—Retrospective case-control series.

Animals—107 male goats with uroliths and 94 male goats with various nonrenal diseases (controls).

Procedures—For male goats, results of serum biochemical analyses collected from 1992 through 2003 were retrieved from computerized records, as were signalment, clinical diagnoses, and discharge status. Results of analyses for BUN, creatinine, phosphorus, calcium, Na, K, Cl, total CO2, anion gap, and glucose were compared between goats with uroliths and control goats.

Results—Goats with uroliths had higher mean BUN, creatinine, total CO2, K, and glucose concentrations and lower mean phosphorus, Na, and Cl concentrations than control goats, with no difference in mean calcium concentration and anion gap. Goats with uroliths had higher frequency of azotemia, hypophosphatemia, hypochloridemia, and increased total CO2 and lower frequency of decreased total CO2 than control goats. Urolithiasis occurred more frequently in castrated males than in sexually intact males and in dwarf African breeds than in other breeds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Goats with uroliths often had hypophosphatemia at admission. Hypochloridemic metabolic alkalosis was the most common acid-base disorder. Rupture in the urinary tract system was associated with increased prevalence of hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. Clinicians should be aware of these abnormalities when determining fluid therapy.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine risk factors for Clostridium piliforme infection in neonatal foals on a Thoroughbred breeding farm in California.

Design—Case-control and retrospective cohort studies.

Animals—322 neonatal Thoroughbred foals either born on the study farm or born elsewhere but traveled to the farm with their dam during the 1998, 1999, and 2000 breeding seasons.

Procedure—Mare and foal records from 1998, 1999, and 2000 were examined, using case-control design methods to determine variables associated with increased risk of C piliforme infection in foals. Important risk factors identified in the case-control study were then reevaluated by use of a retrospective cohort design, using data from all neonatal foals present on the farm during the 3-year study period.

Results—Foals born between March 13 and April 13 were 7.2 times as likely to develop C piliforme infection as were those born at any other time of the foaling season. Foals of nonresident (visiting) mares were 3.4 times as likely to develop disease as were foals born to mares that were permanent residents of the study farm. Foals of mares < 6 years of age were 2.9 times as likely to develop disease as were foals born to older mares.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this research can be used to better understand the epidemiologic factors of C piliforme infection in horses. High-risk foals can be closely monitored to aid in early diagnosis and treatment, resulting in the best possible clinical outcome for affected individuals. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:785–790)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To estimate receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for a competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) that is used in serodiagnosis of brucellosis in water buffalo and cattle, to determine the most appropriate positive cutoff value for the c-ELISA in confirmation of infection, and to evaluate species differences in c-ELISA function.

Sample population—Sera from 4 herds of cattle (n = 391) and 4 herds of water buffalo (381).

Procedure—Serum samples were evaluated for Brucella-specific antibodies by use of a c-ELISA. On the basis of previous serologic test results, iterative simulation modeling was used to classify animals as positive or negative for Brucella infection without the use of a gold standard. Accuracy of c-ELISA for diagnosis of infection was compared between cattle and water buffalo by comparison of areas under ROC curves.

Results—A positive cutoff value of 30% inhibition for c-ELISA yielded sensitivity and specificity estimates, respectively, of 83.9 and 92.6% for cattle and 91.4 and 95.4% for water buffalo. A positive cutoff value of 35% inhibition yielded sensitivity and specificity estimates, respectively, of 83.9 and 96.2% for cattle and 88.0 and 97.4% for water buffalo. Areas under ROC curves were 0.94 and 0.98 for cattle and water buffalo, respectively.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—ROC curves can be estimated by use of iterative simulation methods to determine optimal cutoff values for diagnostic tests with quantitative outcomes. A cutoff value of 35% inhibition for the c-ELISA was found to be most appropriate for confirmation of Brucella infection in cattle and water buffalo. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:57–64)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate sensitivity and specificity of 4 commonly used brucellosis screening tests in cattle and domestic water buffalo of Trinidad, and to compare test parameter estimates between cattle and water buffalo.

Animals—391 cattle and 381 water buffalo.

Procedure—4 Brucella-infected herds (2 cattle and 2 water buffalo) and 4 herds (2 of each species) considered to be brucellosis-free were selected. A minimum of 100 animals, or all animals > 1 year of age, were tested from each herd. Serum samples were evaluated for Brucella-specific antibodies by use of standard plate agglutination test (SPAT), card test (CT), buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT), and standard tube agglutination test (STAT). A Bayesian approach was used to estimate sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests without the use of a gold standard, assuming conditional independence of tests.

Results—Sensitivity and specificity estimates in cattle, respectively, were SPAT, 66.7 and 98.9; CT, 72.7 and 99.6; BPAT, 88.1 and 98.1; and STAT, 80.2 and 99.3. Corresponding test estimates in water buffalo, respectively, were SPAT, 51.4 and 99.3; CT, 90.4 and 99.4; BPAT, 96.3 and 90.7; and STAT, 75.0 and 98.8. Sensitivity of the CT and specificity of the BPAT were different between cattle and water buffalo with at least 95% probability.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Brucellosis serologic test performance varied by species tested, but BPAT had the highest sensitivity for screening cattle and water buffalo. Sensitivity and specificity of more than 2 screening tests can be estimated simultaneously without a gold standard by use of Bayesian techniques. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1598–1605)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research