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Summary

Hyperlipemic serum and plasma samples often are received by clinical laboratories for endocrinologic analysis by radioimmunoassay. We designed a study to determine what effect, if any, hyperlipemia has on estimation of lipid-soluble hormone concentrations determined by solid-phase radioimmunoassays. Progesterone, testosterone, thyroxine, and cortisol concentrations were determined in canine plasma and serum with various degrees of lipemia. Samples of serum, heparinized plasma, and edta-treated plasma were obtained from blood collected from 4 female and 4 male Beagles by use of evacuated tubes. To induce hyperlipemia in vitro, iv fat emulsion was diluted in deionized water to produce 0 (water only), 33, 67, or 100% mixtures. Twenty microliters of each mixture then was added to the subsamples of serum and plasma from each dog. Hormone concentrations were determined, using validated radioimmunoassays. Triglyceride concentrations were determined by enzymatic assay. Addition of iv fat emulsion in vitro was an accurate and reproducible means of altering triglyceride concentrations in the samples. Triglyceride concentrations as high as 700 mg/dl had no effect on radioimmunoassays for progesterone, testosterone, and thyroxine in serum, heparinized plasma, or edta-treated plasma. Addition of 100% (but not 33 or 67%) fat emulsion reduced the mean cortisol concentration in heparinized plasma by 12% (P < 0.05). This severe hyperlipemia did not affect quantification of cortisol in serum or edta-treated plasma.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the trotting gaits of Labrador Retrievers and Greyhounds to determine whether differences in locomotion are attributable to differences in their manner of moving or to body size and shape differences between these 2 breeds.

Animals—8 healthy 5-month-old Greyhounds and 5 healthy Labrador Retrievers between 6 and 18 months old.

Procedure—A series of 4 force platforms was used to record independent ground reaction forces on the forelimbs and hind limbs during trotting. Values of stride parameters were compared between breeds before and after normalization for size differences. Standard values of absolute and normalized stride period and stride length were determined from linear regressions of these parameters on relative (normalized) velocity. Forces were normalized to body weight and compared at the same relative velocity.

Results—Greyhounds used fewer, longer strides than the Labrador Retrievers to travel at the same absolute speed. After normalization for body size differences, most measurable differences between breeds were eliminated. Subtle differences that did persist related to proportion of the stride that the forefoot was in contact with the ground, timing of initial hind foot contact relative to initial forefoot contact, and distribution of vertical force between the forelimbs and hind limbs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that apparent differences in the trotting gait between Labrador Retrievers and Greyhounds are mainly attributable to differences in size, and that dogs of these 2 breeds move in a dynamically similar manner at the trot. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61: 832–838)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate individual- and community-level contextual variables as risk factors for submission of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths or magnesium ammonium phosphate (ie, struvite) uroliths for dogs to a national urolith center, as determined on the basis of urolith submission patterns.

Sample Population—Records of 7,297 dogs from Ontario, Canada, with CaOx or struvite uroliths submitted to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre from 1998 through 2006.

Procedures—Data were analyzed via multilevel multivariable logistic regression.

Results—Individual-level main effects and interactions significantly associated with the risk of submission of CaOx uroliths rather than struvite uroliths included age, sex, breed group, neuter status, body condition, dietary moisture content, diet type, sex-neuter status interaction, sex-age interaction, body condition-age interaction, and breed group—dietary moisture content interaction. In addition, median community family income and being located within a major urban center (ie, Toronto) were significant risk factors for submission of CaOx uroliths, compared with submission of struvite uroliths.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Individual-level and dietary factors for dogs affected the risk of submission of CaOx uroliths, relative to that of struvite uroliths. Interactions among these variables need to be considered when assessing the impact of these risk factors. In addition, community-level or contextual factors (such as community family income and residing in a densely populated area of Ontario) also affected submission patterns, although most of the variance in the risk for submission of CaOx uroliths, compared with the risk for submission of struvite uroliths, was explained by individual-level factors. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1045–1054)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess student awareness of the financial costs of pursuing a veterinary education, to determine student expectations for financial returns of a veterinary career, and to identify associations between student debt and factors such as future career plans or personality type.

Design—Survey.

Sample—First-year veterinary students at the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine.

Procedures—In 2013, prior to the first day of class, all incoming first-year students received an email invitation to complete an online survey. The survey contained questions about demographics, current financial situation, current debt, expected debt at graduation, expected annual income following graduation, intent to pursue specialty training, and Myers-Briggs personality type.

Results—72 of 102 (71%) students completed the survey; 65 respondents answered all relevant questions and provided usable data. Student responses for expected debt at graduation were comparable to national averages for veterinary college graduates; responses for expected annual income following graduation were lower than averages for University of Minnesota veterinary college graduates and national averages. However, students predicted even lower annual income if they did not attend veterinary college. Expected debt and expected annual income were not correlated with factors such as personality type or future career plans.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that first-year veterinary students were aware of the financial costs of their veterinary education and had realistic expectations for future salaries. For typical veterinary students, attending veterinary college appeared to be financially worthwhile, given lower expected earnings otherwise. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:196–203)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association