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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether incubation of cruciate ligament cells with acetylsalicylic acid, carprofen, meloxicam, or robenacoxib provides protection against apoptosis induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP).

Sample—Explants of cranial (CCL) and caudal (CaCL) cruciate ligaments from eight 1-day-old Beagles.

Procedures—Primary cultures of CCL and CaCL cells were created via enzymatic dissociation of cruciate explants. Purified cell cultures were incubated for 2 hours without (controls) or with 1 of 3 concentrations of 1 of 4 NSAIDs (10, 100, or 200 μg of acetylsalicylic acid/mL; 0.1, 1, or 10 μg of carprofen/mL; 0.1, 1, or 10 μg of meloxicam/mL; or 0.1, 1, or 10 μg of robenacoxib/mL) and subsequently incubated for 18 hours with 1 of 3 concentrations of SNP in an attempt to induce mild, moderate, or severe cytotoxic effects. Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed via a cell proliferation assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Prostaglandin E2 concentrations were measured via an ELISA.

Results—Cytoprotective effects of NSAIDs were dependent on the extent of SNP-induced apoptosis and were greatest in CCL and CaCL cell cultures with moderate SNP-induced cytotoxic effects. Preincubation with an NSAID improved cell viability by 15% to 45% when CCL and CaCL cells were subsequently incubated with SNP. Carprofen (10 μg/mL) had the greatest cytoprotective effects for CCL and CaCL cells. Incubation with NSAIDs resulted in a nonsignificant decrease in PGE2 production from SNP-damaged cells.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that carprofen, meloxicam, and robenacoxib may reduce apoptosis in cells originating from canine cruciate ligaments.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites (nitrite-nitrate [NOt]) in cartilage, synovial membrane, and cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) in dogs and evaluate associations with osteoarthritis in dogs with CCL rupture.

Animals—46 dogs with CCL rupture and 54 control dogs without joint disease.

Procedure—Tissue specimens for histologic examination and explant culture were harvested during surgery in the CCL group or immediately after euthanasia in the control group; NOt concentrations were measured in supernatant of explant cultures and compared among dogs with various degrees of osteoarthritis and between dogs with and without CCL rupture.

Results—Osteoarthritic cartilage had significantly higher NOt concentration (1,171.6 nmol/g) than did healthy cartilage (491.0 nmol/g); NOt concentration was associated with severity of macroscopic and microscopic lesions. Synovial membrane NOt concentration did not differ between dogs with and without CCL rupture. Ruptured CCL produced less NOt than did intact ligaments. In control dogs, NOt concentrations were similar for intact ligaments (568.1 nmol/g) and articular cartilage (491.0 nmol/g). Synthesis of NOt was inhibited substantially by coincubation with inhibitors.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that NOt in canine joint tissues originates from the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway. Nitric oxide metabolite production in cartilage was greater in dogs with osteoarthritis than in healthy dogs and was associated with lesion severity, suggesting that nitric oxide inhibitors may be considered as a treatment for osteoarthritis. The CCL produces substantial concentrations of NOt; the importance of this finding is unknown. ( Am J Vet Res 2000;61:530–536)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of single doses of carprofen, etodolac, meloxicam, and butorphanol in dogs with induced acute synovitis (acute pain model) via kinetic gait analysis and orthopedic evaluation and examine measurement of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration as an indicator of treatment efficacy.

Animals—12 Beagles and 6 additional Beagles that were used only in serum CRP analyses.

Procedure—Acute synovitis was induced in right stifle joints of dogs via intra-articular injection of monosodium urate solution. Treatments included butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, IV), carprofen (4 mg/kg, PO), etodolac (17 mg/kg, PO), or meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, PO); control dogs received no treatment. The procedure was repeated (3-week intervals) until all dogs received all treatments including control treatment. Lameness was assessed on a biomechanical force platform and via orthopedic evaluations of the stifle joints; blood was collected to monitor serum CRP concentration.

Results—Compared with control dogs, treated dogs had significantly different vertical ground reaction forces and weight-bearing scores. Greatest improvement in lameness was observed in carprofen-treated dogs. Etodolac had the fastest onset of action. Compared with butorphanol treatment, only carprofen and etodolac were associated with significantly lower pain scores. An increase in serum CRP concentration was detected after intra-articular injection in all dogs; this change was similar among groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Carprofen, etodolac, and meloxicam had greater efficacy than butorphanol in relief of acute pain. Carprofen was most effective overall. In this acute pain model, serum CRP analysis was not useful to assess drug efficacy. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1429–1437)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To validate use of stress MRI for evaluation of stifle joints of dogs with an intact or deficient cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL).

Sample—10 cadaveric stifle joints from 10 dogs.

Procedures—A custom-made limb-holding device and a pulley system linked to a paw plate were used to apply axial compression across the stifle joint and induce cranial tibial translation with the joint in various degrees of flexion. By use of sagittal proton density–weighted MRI, CrCL-intact and deficient stifle joints were evaluated under conditions of loading stress simulating the tibial compression test or the cranial drawer test. Medial and lateral femorotibial subluxation following CrCL transection measured under a simulated tibial compression test and a cranial drawer test were compared.

Results—By use of tibial compression test MRI, the mean ± SD cranial tibial translations in the medial and lateral compartments were 9.6 ± 3.7 mm and 10 ± 4.1 mm, respectively. By use of cranial drawer test MRI, the mean ± SD cranial tibial translations in the medial and lateral compartments were 8.3 ± 3.3 mm and 9.5 ± 3.5 mm, respectively. No significant difference in femorotibial subluxation was found between stress MRI techniques. Femorotibial subluxation elicited by use of the cranial drawer test was greater in the lateral than in the medial compartment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both stress techniques induced stifle joint subluxation following CrCL transection that was measurable by use of MRI, suggesting that both methods may be further evaluated for clinical use.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the accuracy of neurologic examination versus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in localization of cervical disk herniation and evaluate the usefulness of withdrawal reflex testing in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—35 client-owned dogs with a single-level cervical disk herniation as determined via MRI.

Procedures—1 of 2 board-certified neurologists performed a complete neurologic examination in each dog. Clinical signs of a cervical lesion included evidence of neck pain and tetraparesis. The withdrawal reflex was used for neuroanatomic localization (C1-C5 or C6-T2). Agreement between results of neurologic and MRI examinations was determined.

Results—Agreement between neurologic and MRI diagnoses was 65.8%. In 11 dogs in which the lesion was clinically localized to the C6-T2 segment on the basis of a decreased withdrawal reflex in the forelimbs, MRI revealed an isolated C1-C5 disk lesion. In 1 dog, in which the lesion was suspected to be at the C1-C5 level, MRI revealed a C6-T2 lesion. Cranial cervical lesions were significantly associated with an incorrect neurologic diagnosis regarding site of the lesion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the withdrawal reflex in dogs with cervical disk herniation is not reliable for determining the affected site and that a decreased withdrawal reflex does not always indicate a lesion from C6 to T2.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe the presence and amount of apoptotic ligamentous cells in different areas of partially ruptured canine cranial cruciate ligaments (prCCLs) and to compare these findings with apoptosis of ligamentous cells in totally ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments (trCCLs).

Animals—20 dogs with prCCLs and 14 dogs with trCCLs.

Procedures—Dogs with prCCLs or trCCLs were admitted to the veterinary hospital for stifle joint treatment. Biopsy specimens of the intact area of prCCLs (group A) and the ruptured area of prCCLs (group B) as well as specimens from trCCLs (group C) were harvested during arthroscopy. Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) detection were used to detect apoptotic ligamentous cells by immunohistochemistry.

Results—No difference was found in the degree of synovitis or osteophytosis between prCCLs and trCCLs. No difference was found in degenerative changes in ligaments between groups A and B. A substantial amount of apoptotic cells could be found in > 90% of all stained slides. A correlation (rs = 0.71) was found between the number of caspase-3-and PARP-positive cells. No significant difference was found in the amount of apoptotic cells among the 3 groups. No significant correlation could be detected between the degree of synovitis and apoptotic cells or osteophyte production and apoptotic cells.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The lack of difference between the 3 groups indicates that apoptosis could be a factor in the internal disease process leading to CCL rupture and is not primarily a consequence of the acute rupture of the ligament.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the origin and degree of activity of nitric oxide (NO) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in explants of cranial cruciate ligaments (CCLs) obtained from dogs and cultured with and without inflammatory activators.

Sample Population—Tissue specimens obtained from 7 healthy adult Beagles that were (mean ± SD) 4.5 ± 0.5 years old and weighed 12.5 ± 0.8 kg.

Procedure—The CCLs were harvested immediately after dogs were euthanatized, and specimens were submitted for explant culture. Cultures were stimulated by incubation with a combination of interluekin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and lipopolysaccharide, or they were not stimulated. Culture supernatants were examined for production of NO nitrite-nitrate metabolites (NOts) and activity of MMP. Cultured specimens were evaluated by use of immunohistochemical analysis to detect activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS).

Results—All ligament explants produced measurable amounts of NOts. Stimulated cultures produced significantly more NOts after incubation for 24 and 48 hours, compared with nonstimulated cultures. Production of MMP in supernatants after incubation for 48 hours was significantly higher in stimulated cultures than in nonstimulated cultures. Cells with positive staining for iNOS were detected on all slides. Positively stained cells were predominantly chondroid metaplastic. There was a significant difference in intensity of cell staining between stimulated and nonstimulated cultures.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Explant cultures of intact CCLs obtained from dogs produce iNOS-induced NO. Stimulation of chondroid metaplastic cells in CCL of dogs by use of inflammatory activators can increase production of iNOS, NOts, and MMP. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1423–1428)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research