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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Collection of a satisfactory blood sample requires special procedures to prevent changes in glucose and lactate content after the sample has been obtained. Changes in measured plasma glucose and blood lactate concentrations attributable to anticoagulants and storage procedures, respectively, were examined in blood samples obtained from horses at rest and after exercise.

To evaluate the effect of anticoagulants on measured plasma glucose concentration, blood was preserved with either sodium fluoride/potassium oxalate or lithium heparin. Measured plasma glucose concentration in blood obtained at rest and after exercise was 6 and 10 % lower (P = 0.0038), respectively, when blood was preserved with fluoride/oxalate, compared with heparin. The erythrocyte volume in the blood sample was 15% smaller (P = 0.0001) in samples preserved with fluoride/oxalate, indicating a movement of water out of erythrocytes in the blood sample mixed with that anticoagulant.

To evaluate the effect of storage procedure on measured blood lactate concentration, part of the blood sample was immediately deproteinized for blood lactate analysis, and the remaining blood was maintained for 30 and 60 minutes at either 0 or 22 C before deproteinization. When blood samples were maintained at 0 C prior to deproteinization, there was no difference in blood lactate concentration, regardless of the incubation time, compared with that in samples immediately deproteinized. Blood lactate concentration was greater (P < 0.01) in samples maintained at 22 C, compared with that in samples immediately deproteinized, and with that in equivalent samples maintained at 0 C.

Blood preserved with fluoride/oxalate had lower measured plasma glucose concentration, compared with blood preserved with heparin, which was probably attributable to shrinkage of erythrocytes and dilution of the plasma with intracellular water. Minimal changes in blood lactate concentration were observed in samples maintained at 0 C up to 60 minutes.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Multicompartmental analysis was applied to study the kinetics of D-xylose distribution after its intragastric administration to healthy mares deprived of food for 12, 36, 72, and 96 hours. Disposition of D-xylose was described by a 5-compartment model. Maximal plasma D-xylose concentration was similar for 12 and 36 hours of food deprivation and was greater (P = 0.0001) than the values for 72 and 96 hours. Peak concentration of D-xylose appeared progressively later as food deprivation proceeded (P = 0.0001). Fractional rate of transfer (k1,6) was less after 96 hours of food deprivation, compared with 12 hours (P = 0.0001), and percentage of D-xylose absorbed was reduced (P = 0.0441) after food deprivation. Fractional rate of transfer (k6,5), representing gastric emptying, tended to progressively decrease with food deprivation.

Results indicated that formal kinetic analysis can be applied to D-xylose absorption kinetics in horses. Reduction in the extent of D-xylose absorption after food deprivation may be partly caused by decreased rate of D-xylose absorption across the small intestinal mucosa, but other factors, such as gastric emptying and nonabsorptive losses, may also be involved.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Multicompartmental analysis was applied to study the kinetics of D-xylose distribution after IV administration to healthy mares deprived of food for 12 and 96 hours. Urinary excretion of D-xylose was measured over a 15-hour period after administration. The plasma D-xylose concentrations in this study were in the range found after oral tolerance testing. The disposition of D-xylose was described by a two-compartment model with linear kinetic characteristics. Total volume of distribution decreased significantly (P < 0.025) from 0.270 L/kg of body weight after the 12-hour period of food deprivation to 0.235 L/kg after the 96-hour period. Fractional rate of transfer between the central and peripheral compartments did not change after 96 hours without food. Approximately a third of the D-xylose administered was recovered in the urine. Difference in urinary elimination between the 12- and 96-hour periods was not significant. Nonrenal elimination rate was determined to be twice the renal elimination rate.

The results indicated that formal kinetic analysis can provide useful information about D-xylose distribution in horses. The decreased D-xylose space found after a 96-hour period of food deprivation would tend to increase the plasma D-xylose concentration, and this may help in the interpretation of the D-xylose absorption test applied to anorectic horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Four mares fed a low fiber, high soluble carbohydrate diet were used in a crossover design to evaluate the effects of dietary sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation during daily low-intensity submaximal working conditions. Mares were fed the diet at 1.7 times the maintenance energy requirement for mature horses at work. The horses tolerated the diet well and had no clinical abnormalities. Resting venous blood bicarbonate (HCO3), standard HCO3, and base excess (be) concentrations significantly (P < 0.05) increased with NaHCO3 supplementation, but no significant changes in resting venous blood pH or carbon dioxide tension (Pco 2) were recorded.

Venous blood HCO3, standard HCO3, be, hemoglobin, and heart rate were significantly (P < 0.05) increased and plasma lactate concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the control horses and in the horses given the NaHCO3 supplement during low-intensity submaximal exercise. There were no significant changes in venous blood pH, Pco 2, or plasma protein concentration with exercise. Venous blood HCO3, standard HCO3, and be concentrations were significantly (P < 0 05) greater during submaximal exercise in horses given the NaHCO3 supplement. There were no significant differences in plasma lactate or total protein concentrations, blood pH, Pco 2, or hemoglobin concentration between the 2 groups during exercise.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify changes in folate status of mares and foals during lactation and growth, respectively.

Animals—20 Thoroughbred mares and foals.

Procedures—Pregnant mares, and following foaling the same mares with their foals, were maintained on mixed grass-legume pasture and fed either a traditional dietary supplement rich in sugar and starch (SS) or a dietary supplement high in fat and fiber (FF). Blood samples were collected monthly from mares and foals up to 6 months after foaling. Total folate concentration in feed and forage was determined. Analyses of plasma folate, RBC folate, plasma homocysteine (HCY), and milk folate concentrations were performed.

Results—Mare plasma folate concentrations declined moderately during 6 months of lactation. Mare RBC folate concentrations initially increased after foaling up to 3 months but declined toward the end of the study. Plasma HCY concentration was higher for mares fed the SS supplement, compared with mares fed the FF supplement from foaling to 6 months of lactation. Milk folate concentrations decreased during the first 3 months and then increased. Foal plasma folate initially declined but then increased. Stable concentrations of RBC folate were observed in foals. Plasma HCY concentrations in foals were unaffected by growth during the last 5 months. References range values for plasma folate, RBC folate, milk folate, and plasma HCY concentrations in healthy lactational mares and young growing foals were determined.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Folate status was not impaired in lactating mares and growing foals under the conditions in our study. It appears that folate supplementation is not necessary. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1214–1221)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine lactate breakpoint of horses and test for effects of training and dietary supplementation with corn oil on that breakpoint.

Animals—7 healthy Arabian horses.

Procedures—Horses received a control diet (n = 4) or a diet supplemented with 10% corn oil (4). A training program, which comprised two 5-week conditioning periods with 1 week of rest, was initiated. Submaximal incremental exercise tests (IET) were conducted before the first and after both conditioning periods. Blood samples for determination of blood lactate and plasma glucose concentrations were collected 1 minute before IET and during the 15 seconds immediately preceding each speed change. Data collected were fit to one- and twoslope broken-line models and an exponential model.

Results—Good fits were obtained by application of the broken-line models (adjusted R 2 > 0.92) to blood lactate concentration versus speed curves. Lactate breakpoints increased 41% after training but were not affected by diet. After training, slope 2 and peak blood lactate concentrations were greater in the corn oil group, compared with controls. Mean blood lactate concentration at the breakpoint was not affected by training or diet. Plasma glucose concentration versus speed curves also fit the broken-line models, and glucose breakpoints preceded lactate breakpoints by approximately 1 m/s in the second and third IET.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Lactate breakpoints can be determined for horses, using blood lactate concentration versus speed curves generated during submaximal IET and may be useful for assessing fitness and monitoring training programs in equine athletes. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:144–151)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate genetic and metabolic predis-positions and nutritional risk factors for development of pasture-associated laminitis in ponies.

Design—Observational cohort study.

Animals—160 ponies.

Procedures—A previous diagnosis of laminitis was used to differentiate 54 ponies (PL group) from 106 nonlaminitic ponies (NL group). Pedigree analysis was used to determine a mode of inheritance for ponies with a previous diagnosis of laminitis. In early March, ponies were weighed and scored for body condition and basal venous blood samples were obtained. Plasma was analyzed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and cortisol concentrations. Basal proxies for insulin sensitivity (reciprocal of the square root of insulin [RISQI]) and insulin secretory response (modified insulin-to-glucose ratio [MIRG]) were calculated. Observations were repeated in May, when some ponies had signs of clinical laminitis.

Results—A previous diagnosis of laminitis was consistent with the expected inheritance of a dominant major gene or genes with reduced penetrance. A prelaminitic metabolic profile was defined on the basis of body condition, plasma triglyceride concentration, RISQI, and MIRG. Meeting ≥ 3 of these criteria differentiated PL-from NL-group ponies with a total predictive power of 78%. Determination of prelaminitic metabolic syndrome in March predicted 11 of 13 cases of clinical laminitis observed in May when pasture starch concentration was high.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prelaminitic metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy ponies is comparable to metabolic syndromes in humans and is the first such set of risk factors to be supported by data in equids. Prelaminitic metabolic syndrome identifies ponies requiring special management, such as avoiding high starch intake that exacerbates insulin resistance.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop proxies calculated from basal plasma glucose and insulin concentrations that predict insulin sensitivity (SI; L·min–1 ·mU–1) and beta-cell responsiveness (ie, acute insulin response to glucose [AIRg]; mU/L·min–1) and to determine reference quintiles for these and minimal model variables.

Animals—1 laminitic pony and 46 healthy horses.

Procedure—Basal plasma glucose (mg/dL) and insulin (mU/L) concentrations were determined from blood samples obtained between 8:00 AM and 9:00 AM. Minimal model results for 46 horses were compared by equivalence testing with proxies for screening SI and pancreatic beta-cell responsiveness in humans and with 2 new proxies for screening in horses (ie, reciprocal of the square root of insulin [RISQI] and modified insulin-to-glucose ratio [MIRG]).

Results—Best predictors of SI and AIRg were RISQI (r = 0.77) and MIRG (r = 0.75) as follows: SI = 7.93(RISQI) – 1.03 and AIRg = 70.1(MIRG) – 13.8, where RISQI equals plasma insulin concentration–0.5 and MIRG equals [800 – 0.30(plasma insulin concentration – 50)2]/(plasma glucose concentration – 30). Total predictive powers were 78% and 80% for RISQI and MIRG, respectively. Reference ranges and quintiles for a population of healthy horses were calculated nonparametrically.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Proxies for screening SI and pancreatic beta-cell responsiveness in horses from this study compared favorably with proxies used effectively for humans. Combined use of RISQI and MIRG will enable differentiation between compensated and uncompensated insulin resistance. The sample size of our study allowed for determination of sound reference range values and quintiles for healthy horses. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2114–2121)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research