OBJECTIVE To evaluate clinical signs, endocrine test results, and pituitary tumor size for dogs with medically managed pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) and macroadenoma following 6 months of concurrent treatment with pasireotide.
DESIGN Prospective case series.
ANIMALS 9 client-owned dogs with PDH and macroadenoma in which PDH had been successfully managed with adrenal-directed treatment (trilostane or mitotane).
PROCEDURES Dogs were given pasireotide (0.03 mg/kg [0.014 mg/lb], SC, q 12 h) for 6 months, while adrenal-directed treatment was continued. Physical examination, basic clinicopathologic testing, ACTH stimulation testing, and plasma ACTH concentration measurement were performed before (baseline) and 3 and 6 months after treatment began. Measurements of pituitary gland volume and pituitary gland-to-brain ratio were performed via MRI at baseline and 6 months after treatment began.
RESULTS No dog developed neurologic abnormalities or signs of adverse effects during the study period. No differences from baseline were identified in clinicopathologic values, ACTH stimulation test results, or plasma ACTH concentration at the 3- or 6-month assessment points. After 6 months of pasireotide treatment, 6 dogs had decreases in MRI-measured values, and 3 had increases.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Pasireotide as administered in this study had no noted adverse effects on dogs with PDH and macroadenoma successfully managed with standard treatment. Placebo-controlled, randomized studies are needed to determine whether pasireotide protects from the development of neurologic signs or improves outcome in dogs with pituitary macroadenomas.
Objective—To evaluate thyroid function in healthy
Greyhounds, compared with healthy non-Greyhound
pet dogs, and to establish appropriate reference
range values for Greyhounds.
Animals—98 clinically normal Greyhounds and 19
clinically normal non-Greyhounds.
Procedures—Greyhounds were in 2 groups as follows:
those receiving testosterone for estrus suppression
(T-group Greyhounds) and those not receiving
estrus suppressive medication (NT-group
Greyhounds). Serum thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine
(fT4) concentrations were determined before and after
administration of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
and thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH). Basal serum
canine thyroid stimulating hormone (cTSH) concentrations
were determined on available stored sera.
Results—Basal serum T4 and fT4 concentrations
were significantly lower in Greyhounds than in non-
Greyhounds. Serum T4 concentrations after TSH and
TRH administration were significantly lower in
Greyhounds than in non-Greyhounds. Serum fT4 concentrations
after TSH and TRH administration were
significantly lower in NT-group than T-group
Greyhounds and non-Greyhounds. Mean cTSH concentrations
were not different between Greyhounds
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Previously
established canine reference range values for basal
serum T4 and fT4 may not be appropriate for use in
Greyhounds. Greyhound-specific reference range values
for basal serum T4 and fT4 concentrations should
be applied when evaluating thyroid function in
Greyhounds. Basal cTSH concentrations in
Greyhounds are similar to non-Greyhound pet dogs.
(Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1130–1133)
To determine whether serum total thyroxine (TT4) concentration at admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) was associated with mortality rate and duration of hospitalization for critically ill dogs.
166 client-owned dogs that were hospitalized in the ICU of a private veterinary practice from January 2013 through December 2016 and for which serum TT4 concentration had been measured at admission.
Medical records were reviewed to collect data regarding patient signalment, concurrent illnesses, medications, reason for hospitalization, outcome (death, euthanasia, or survival to hospital discharge), duration of hospitalization, and initial serum TT4 concentration.
Mean age of the 166 dogs was 8.6 years (range, 1 to 16 years). Overall mortality rate was 15.7%, with 26 dogs failing to survive to hospital discharge. Of these 26 dogs, 7 died and 19 were euthanized. No significant association was identified between serum TT4 concentration at admission and survival to discharge (yes or no) or duration of hospitalization. Age was significantly associated with survival to discharge, with older dogs less likely to survive than younger dogs. Duration of hospitalization was also associated with survival to discharge, with longer hospital stays associated with a lower likelihood of survival to discharge.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Findings suggested that serum TT4 concentration at admission to an ICU had no prognostic value in this population of critically ill dogs.
Objective—To compare adrenal gland stimulation achieved following administration of cosyntropin (5 μg/kg [2.3 μg/lb]) IM versus IV in healthy dogs and dogs with hyperadrenocorticism.
Animals—9 healthy dogs and 9 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism.
Procedures—In both groups, ACTH stimulation was performed twice. Healthy dogs were randomly assigned to receive cosyntropin IM or IV first, but all dogs with hyperadrenocorticism received cosyntropin IV first. In healthy dogs, serum cortisol concentration was measured before (baseline) and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after cosyntropin administration. In dogs with hyperadrenocorticism, serum cortisol concentration was measured before and 60 minutes after cosyntropin administration.
Results—In the healthy dogs, serum cortisol concentration increased significantly after administration of cosyntropin, regardless of route of administration, and serum cortisol concentrations after IM administration were not significantly different from concentrations after IV administration. For both routes of administration, serum cortisol concentration peaked 60 or 90 minutes after cosyntropin administration. In dogs with hyperadrenocorticism, serum cortisol concentration was significantly increased 60 minutes after cosyntropin administration, compared with baseline concentration, and concentrations after IM administration were not significantly different from concentrations after IV administration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in healthy dogs and dogs with hyperadrenocorticism, administration of cosyntropin at a dose of 5 μg/kg, IV or IM, resulted in equivalent adrenal gland stimulation.
Objective—To evaluate response rate and duration of
malignant melanomas in dogs treated with carboplatin.
Animals—27 client-owned dogs with spontaneously
occurring measurable malignant melanomas.
Procedure—Records of dogs with melanomas treated
with carboplatin from October 1989 to June 2000
were reviewed. Carboplatin was administered IV at
doses of 300 or 350 mg/m2 of body surface area.
Response to treatment and evidence of drug toxicity
Result—Response to treatment could be evaluated in
25 dogs. Of those, overall response rate was 28%.
One dog had a complete response, 6 (24%) dogs had
a partial response (> 50% reduction in tumor burden).
Median duration of partial response was 165 days.
Eighteen dogs had stable disease (n = 9; 36%) or progressive
disease (9; 36%). Response to treatment
was significantly associated with carboplatin dose on
a milligram per kilogram basis (15.1 mg/kg [6.9 mg/lb]
of body weight vs 12.6 mg/kg [5.7 mg/lb]). Evidence
of gastrointestinal toxicosis could be assessed in 27
dogs. Mean body weight of 5 dogs that developed
gastrointestinal toxicosis was significantly less than
that of 22 dogs without gastrointestinal toxicosis (9.9
kg [21.8 lb] vs 19.3 kg [42.5 lb]).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Carboplatin
had activity against macroscopic spontaneously
occurring malignant melanomas in dogs and should
be considered as an adjunctive treatment for microscopic
local or metastatic tumors. Gastrointestinal
toxicosis was associated with body weight. Because
small dogs are more likely to have adverse gastrointestinal
effects, gastrointestinal protectants should be
considered for these patients. (J Am Vet Med Assoc