Objective—To determine whether substance P (SP)
functions as a neurotransmitter in equine jejunum.
Sample Population—Samples of jejunum obtained
from horses that did not have lesions in the gastrointestinal
Procedure—Jejunal smooth muscle strips, oriented
in the plane of the circular or longitudinal muscle,
were suspended isometrically in muscle baths.
Neurotransmitter release was induced by electrical
field stimulation (EFS) delivered at 2 intensities (30
and 70 V) and various frequencies on muscle strips
that were maintained at low tension or were under
contraction. A neurokinin-1 receptor blocker (CP-
96,345) was added to baths prior to EFS to interrupt
SP neurotransmission. Additionally, direct effects of
SP on muscle strips were evaluated, and SP-like
immunoreactivity was localized in intestinal tissues,
using indirect immunofluorescence testing.
Results—Substance P contracted circularly and longitudinally
oriented muscle strips. Prior treatment with
CP-96,345 altered muscle responses to SP and EFS,
suggesting that SP was released from depolarized
myenteric neurons. Depending on orientation of muscle
strips and stimulation variables used, CP-96,345
increased or decreased the contractile response to
EFS. Substance P-like immunoreactivity was detected
in the myenteric plexus and circular muscle layers.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Substance P
appears to function as a neurotransmitter in equine
jejunum. It apparently modulates smooth muscle contractility,
depending on preexisting conditions. Effects
of SP may be altered in some forms of intestinal dysfunction.
Altering SP neurotransmission in the
jejunum may provide a therapeutic option for motility
disorders of horses that are unresponsive to adrenergic
and cholinergic drugs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:
Objective—To determine the prevalence of exposure to canine influenza virus (CIV) in dogs in a metropolitan animal shelter.
Procedures—Dogs were randomly selected from the canine shelter population. A physical examination was performed, and blood samples were obtained and submitted for serologic testing for the detection of antibodies against CIV. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association of factors (body condition score, nasal discharge, coughing, rectal temperature, number of days in the shelter, and relinquished vs stray) with positive results.
Results—31 of 74 (42%) dogs were seropositive for antibodies against CIV. Positive serologic test results were detected for 6 of 39 (15%) dogs housed in the shelter for ≤ 7 days and for 25 of 35 (71%) dogs housed in the shelter for ≥ 8 days. Number of days in the shelter was the only factor significantly associated with positive serologic test results. For every 3 days in the shelter, the odds of a positive serologic test result increased significantly by 2.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 3.4).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of the results suggested that more dogs were exposed to CIV in the shelter than were exposed in the urban environment. This has serious implications for design and management of animal shelters.
Objectives—To study the in vitro effects of cecal contents
incubated with corn starch on colonic permeability
Animals—4 healthy adult ponies.
Procedure—Mucosal specimens were obtained from
the right ventral colon and mounted in Ussing chambers.
Changes in short circuit current, conductance,
and large-molecule permeability in response to addition
of cecal contents and cecal contents incubated
with corn starch were evaluated for 120 minutes.
Results—Incubation of cecal contents with corn
starch for 8 hours resulted in a decrease in cecal content
pH and an increase in lactic acid concentration.
These changes were similar to those reported in vivo
for ponies given corn starch. Exposure of colonic
mucosa to cecal contents incubated with corn starch
resulted in an increase in tissue conductance and permeability
of technetium Tc 99m pentetate, compared
with mucosa exposed to cecal contents alone.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In vitro exposure
of colonic mucosa to cecal contents incubated
with starch resulted in increased paracellular permeability.
Fermentation of excessive amounts of carbohydrate
in the intestinal lumen of horses may directly
induce increased intestinal permeability associated
with carbohydrate-induced laminitis. (Am J Vet Res
To compare the effects of a dexmedetomidine-ketamine-midazolam (DKM) anesthetic protocol versus isoflurane inhalation anesthesia on echocardiographic variables and plasma cardiac troponin 1 (cTnI) concentration in black-tailed prairie dogs (BTPDs; Cynomys ludovicianus).
Nine 6-month-old sexually intact male captive BTPDs.
Each BTPD was randomly assigned to be anesthetized by IM administration of dexmedetomidine (0.25 mg/kg), ketamine (40 mg/kg), and midazolam (1.5 mg/kg) or via inhalation of isoflurane and oxygen. Three days later, each BTPD underwent the alternative anesthetic protocol. Echocardiographic data and a blood sample were collected within 5 minutes after initiation and just prior to cessation of each 45-minute-long anesthetic episode.
Time or anesthetic protocol had no significant effect on echocardiographic variables. For either protocol, plasma cTnI concentration did not differ with time. When administered as the first treatment, neither anesthetic protocol significantly affected plasma cTnI concentration. However, with regard to findings for the second treatments, plasma cTnI concentrations in isoflurane-treated BTPDs (n = 4; data for 1 animal were not analyzed because of procedural problems) were higher than values in DKM-treated BTPDs (4), which was suspected to be a carryover effect from prior DKM treatment.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The DKM and isoflurane anesthetic protocols did not have any significant effect on echocardiographic measurements in the BTPDs. Increases in plasma cTnI concentration during the second anesthetic episode were evident when BTPDs underwent the DKM anesthetic protocol as the first of the 2 treatments, suggestive of potential myocardial injury associated with that anesthetic protocol. Clinicians should consider these findings, especially when evaluating BTPDs with known or suspected cardiac disease.
PROCEDURES After collection of baseline clinical and historical data, dogs were randomly assigned to receive topically applied undiluted heterologous serum (n = 22) or isotonic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (19) along with tobramycin and atropine. Epithelial debridement (at all visits) and grid keratotomy (at visits 2, 3, and 4) of SCCEDs were performed. Ophthalmic examination including fluorescein application was performed once weekly for 4 weeks or until corneal reepithelialization. Clinicians and owners were masked to treatment group.
RESULTS No differences in baseline data were detected between treatment groups. No difficulties with medication administration, noncompliance, or adverse reactions were noted. All SCCEDs in both groups healed by 4 weeks after treatment began. Median time to reepithelialization (2 weeks) was not significantly different between serum-treated and placebo-treated eyes. Irrespective of treatment group, median time to reepithelialization was not significantly different for Boxers versus non-Boxer breeds. Direct correlations were detected between time to reepithelialization and vascularization score at study entry, vascularization score at time of reepithelialization, and ulcer area at study entry in both groups. Time to reepithelialization was not correlated with age, sex, or duration of signs in either group.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Topical application of undiluted heterologous serum was well tolerated by dogs with SCCEDs but, as an adjunct to standard treatment, did not reduce time to corneal reepithelialization.
To evaluate the effects of injectable dexmedetomidine-ketamine-midazolam (DKM) and isoflurane inhalation (ISO) anesthetic protocols on selected ocular variables in captive black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus; BTPDs).
9 zoo-kept BTPDs.
The BTPDs received dexmedetomidine hydrochloride (0.25 mg/kg, IM), ketamine hydrochloride (40 mg/kg, IM), and midazolam hydrochloride (1.5 mg/kg, IM) or inhalation of isoflurane and oxygen in a randomized complete crossover design (2-day interval between anesthetic episodes). Pupil size, globe position, tear production, and intraocular pressure measurements were recorded at 5, 30, and 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. For each BTPD, a phenol red thread test was performed in one randomly selected eye and a modified Schirmer tear test I was performed in the other eye. Intraocular pressure was measured by rebound tonometry.
Compared with findings for the DKM protocol, pupil size was smaller at all time points when the BTPDs underwent the ISO protocol. Globe position remained central during anesthesia with the DKM protocol, whereas it varied among central, ventromedial, and ventrolateral positions during anesthesia with the ISO protocol. Tear production and intraocular pressure decreased significantly over time when the BTPDs underwent either protocol.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that ophthalmic examination findings for anesthetized BTPDs can be influenced by the anesthetic protocol used. The DKM protocol may result in more consistent pupil size and globe position, compared with that achieved by use of the ISO protocol. Tear production and intraocular pressure measurements should be conducted promptly after induction of anesthesia to avoid the effect of anesthetic episode duration on these variables.
Objective—To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine decanoate after IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
Animals—9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex.
Procedures—Nalbuphine decanoate (37.5 mg/kg) was administered IM to all birds. Plasma samples were obtained from blood collected before (time 0) and 0.25, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours after drug administration. Plasma samples were used for measurement of nalbuphine concentrations via liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated with computer software.
Results—Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine increased rapidly after IM administration, with a mean concentration of 46.1 ng/mL at 0.25 hours after administration. Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine remained > 20 ng/mL for at least 24 hours in all birds. The maximum plasma concentration was 109.4 ng/mL at 2.15 hours. The mean terminal half-life was 20.4 hours.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, plasma concentrations of nalbuphine were prolonged after IM administration of nalbuphine decanoate, compared with previously reported results after administration of nalbuphine hydrochloride. Plasma concentrations that could be associated with antinociception were maintained for 24 hours after IM administration of 37.5 mg of nalbuphine decanoate/kg. Safety and analgesic efficacy of nalbuphine treatments in this species require further investigation to determine the potential for clinical use in pain management in psittacine species.
Objective—To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects and duration of action of nalbuphine decanoate after IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
Animals—10 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex.
Procedures—Nalbuphine decanoate (33.7 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was administered IM in a randomized complete crossover experimental design (periods 1 and 2). Foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus was used to evaluate responses. Baseline thermal withdrawal threshold was recorded 1 hour before drug or saline solution administration, and thermal foot withdrawal threshold measurements were repeated 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after drug administration.
Results—Nalbuphine decanoate administered IM at a dose of 33.7 mg/kg significantly increased thermal foot withdrawal threshold, compared with results after administration of saline solution during period 2, and also caused a significant change in withdrawal threshold for up to 12 hours, compared with baseline values.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Nalbuphine decanoate increased the foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots for up to 12 hours and provided a longer duration of action than has been reported for other nalbuphine formulations. Further studies with other types of nociceptive stimulation, dosages, and dosing intervals as well as clinical trials are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of nalbuphine decanoate in psittacine birds.