Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for

  • Author or Editor: David P. Hutcheson x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

SUMMARY

Genomic DNA samples and health records from 98 unrelated, mixed-breed cattle inoculated with bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) were examined to determine the relationship between interferon (ifn) genotype and severity of clinical disease. Cattle were retrospectively classified as moderately or severely affected on the basis of rectal temperature, feed intake, and weight gain after intranasal inoculation of bhv-1. Southern blot analysis of 16 type-I ifn genes identified alleles at 3 ifn loci (IFNB1, IFNW4, and IFNW8) that were significantly associated with the more severe clinical phenotype (odds ratios = 4.1 [P= 0.01], 2.3 [P< 0.05] and 2.4 [P= 0.06], respectively). A second allele at the IFNB1 locus was associated with the milder disease phenotype (odds ratio = 2.9, P< 0.05). These results indicate that selective breeding programs aimed at altering the frequency of these alleles in cattle populations may potentially improve animal health and lessen the economic impact of bhv-1 infection on cattle producers.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare effects of administration of a modified-live respiratory virus vaccine once with administration of the same vaccine twice on the health and performance of cattle.

Design—Randomized, controlled trial.

Animals—612 mixed-breed male cattle with unknown health histories.

Procedures—Cattle were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups (single vaccination treatment group [SVAC group] vs revaccination treatment group [REVAC group]) during the preconditioning phase of production. All cattle were given a modified-live respiratory virus vaccine. Eleven days later, REVAC group cattle received a second injection of the same vaccine. During the finishing phase of production, cattle from each treatment group were either vaccinated a third time with the modified-live respiratory virus vaccine or given no vaccine. Health observations were performed daily. Blood and performance variables were measured throughout the experiment.

Results—During preconditioning, no significant differences were observed in performance or antibody production between groups. Morbidity rate from bovine respiratory disease was lower for SVAC group cattle; however, days to first treatment for bovine respiratory disease were not different between groups. No significant differences in body weights, daily gains, or dry-matter intake between groups were observed during the finishing phase. Revaccination treatment group cattle had improved feed efficiency regardless of vaccination protocol in the finishing phase.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vaccination once with a modified-live respiratory virus vaccine was as efficacious as vaccination twice in the prevention of bovine respiratory disease of high-risk cattle, although feed efficiency was improved in REVAC group cattle during the finishing period.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare immune responses induced by 2 commercially available vaccines with a bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1) component following intranasal (IN) administration to colostrum-fed calves.

ANIMALS

90 male Holstein calves (ages, 5 to 14 days).

PROCEDURES

In a randomized complete block design, each calf received 2 mL (1 mL/nostril) of vaccine A (n = 30), vaccine B (30), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (30) on day 0. Blood samples were collected for determination of serum anti-BHV1 IgG titer, and nasal fluid (NF) samples were collected for determination of interferon (IFN)-α and IFN-γ concentrations and for secretory IgA titers against BHV1, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida at predetermined times for 42 days after vaccination.

RESULTS

All calves were seropositive for anti-BHV1 IgG, and the mean anti-BHV1 IgG titer did not differ significantly among the 3 groups at any time. Both vaccines induced significant transient increases in NF IFN-α and IFN-γ concentrations. On day 5, mean IFN-α concentration and the proportion of calves with detectable IFN-α concentrations for the vaccine A group were significantly greater than those for the vaccine B and control groups. On day 42, the mean NF anti–P multocida IgA titers for both vaccine groups were significantly greater than that of the control group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Both vaccines induced innate and acquired immune responses in calves with colostral antibodies. The magnitude of the IFN-α response and proportion of calves with detectable IFN-α differed between the 2 vaccine groups. Both vaccines appeared to enhance the IgA response against P multocida.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association