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  • Author or Editor: David P. Alt x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether a monovalent Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo (type hardjobovis) vaccine commercially available in Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, and the United Kingdom would protect cattle from renal colonization and urinary shedding when exposed to a US strain of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo.

Animals—24 Hereford heifers that lacked detectable antibodies against serovar hardjo.

Procedure—Heifers received 2 doses, 4 weeks apart, of the commercial hardjo vaccine (n = 8) or a monovalent US reference hardjo vaccine (8) or were not vaccinated (controls; 8). Heifers were challenged 16 weeks later by intraperitoneal inoculation or conjunctival instillation. Serum antibody titers were measured weekly, and urine samples were examined for leptospires. Heifers were euthanatized 11 to 14 weeks after challenge, and kidney tissue was examined for evidence of colonization.

Results—All 8 heifers vaccinated with the reference vaccine were found to be shedding leptospires in their urine and had evidence of renal colonization. All 4 control heifers challenged by conjunctival instillation and 2 of 4 control heifers challenged by intraperitoneal inoculation shed leptospires in their urine, and all 8 had evidence of renal colonization. In contrast, leptospires were not detected in the urine or tissues of any of the 8 heifers that received the commercial hardjo vaccine. Heifers that received the commercial hardjo vaccine had significantly higher antibody titers than did heifers that received the reference vaccine.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that cattle that received 2 doses of the commercial hardjo vaccine were protected against renal colonization and urinary shedding when challenged with L borgpetersenii serovar hardjo strain 203 four months after vaccination. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:995–1000)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate antibiotics for treatment of cattle with leptospirosis caused by Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—42 healthy mixed-breed cattle.

Procedure—Cattle were inoculated via conjunctival instillation with L borgpetersenii serovar hardjo. After infection and urinary shedding of L borgpetersenii were confirmed, cattle were treated with various antibiotics. To determine effectiveness of antibiotic treatment, urinary shedding of L borgpetersenii was monitored for 4 to 6 weeks after administration of antibiotics, using darkfield microscopic examination, microbial culture, immunofluorescence testing, and a polymerase chain reaction assay.

Results—All inoculated cattle developed leptospirosis and shed leptospires in their urine. The following antibiotic treatments resulted in elimination of urinary shedding of leptospires: a single injection of oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg [9 mg/lb] of body weight, IM), tilmicosin (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], SC), or a combination product that contained dihydrostreptomycin-penicillin G (25 mg/kg [11.4 mg/lb], IM) or multiple injections of ceftiofur sodium (2.2 or 5 mg/kg [1 or 2.3 mg/lb], IM, once daily for 5 days, or 20 mg/kg, IM, once daily for 3 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Successful resolution of leptospirosis in cattle by administration of dihydrostreptomycin-penicillin G confirms results obtained by other investigators. Three other antibiotics (oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, and ceftiofur) also were effective for resolving leptospirosis and may be useful substitutes for dihydrostreptomycin, an antibiotic that is no longer available for use in food-producing animals in the United States. Cost, safety, and withdrawal times of these various treatment options need to be considered. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:636–639)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate gross, histopathologic, and serum biochemical findings caused by Leptospira interrogans serovars pomona and bratislava inoculated in dogs.

Animals—Twenty-seven 8-week-old female Beagles.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to challenge or control groups. Challenge groups were conjunctivally inoculated on 3 successive days with 5 ×107 L interrogans serovar pomona (n = 12) or serovar bratislava (11). Clinical signs were recorded throughout the experiment, and clinical pathology assays, bacteriologic culture, and necropsies (6 or 7 dogs necropsied at each time point) were done on postinoculation day (PID) 7, 10, 14, and 20.

Results—Infection could not be confirmed in any serovar bratislava–inoculated dog, and control dogs remained healthy throughout the experiment. Positive culture and fluorescent antibody test results were confirmed in 11 of 12 serovar pomona–inoculated dogs. Fever and lethargy starting at PID 7 were the most common clinical signs in serovar pomona–infected dogs. On day 10, gross lesions included multifocal renal and pulmonary hemorrhage and perirenal edema. Serovar pomona–inoculated dogs had histopathologic lesions including hepatitis, interstitial nephritis, and pneumonia at PID 7, 10, 14, and 20. Increases in BUN, anion gap, and bilirubin concentration occurred on PID 10, 14, and 20. Platelet counts in dogs with positive results of bacteriologic culture were decreased from baseline values on PID 10, 12, and 14.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance— Conjunctival inoculation with L interrogans serovar pomona resulted in a high rate of infection with concomitant hemorrhagic and inflammatory lesions of the kidneys, liver, and lungs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1816–1822)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop a method for inducing acute leptospirosis in dogs.

Animals—31 nine-week-old female Beagles.

Procedure—Beagles were randomly assigned to 2 inoculation groups or a control group. Dogs were inoculated on 3 successive days by conjunctival instillation of 5 X 107 cells of Leptospira kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa strain 82 (12 dogs) or strain RM 52 (14 dogs). Control dogs (n = 5) were similarly inoculated with sterile leptospiral culture media. Clinical signs, clinicopathologic variables, anti-leptospiral antibody titers, and evidence of leptospires in tissues and body fluids were evaluated. Dogs were euthanatized and necropsied on days 7, 14, 22, or 28 after inoculation or as required because of severe illness.

Results—Clinical signs in infected dogs included conjunctivitis, lethargy, diarrhea, dehydration, vomiting, and icterus. Consistent clinicopathologic alterations included azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, increased anion gap, hyperbilirubinemia, and an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. Leptospires were cultured from the kidneys (11/12), urine (6/9), aqueous humor (9/12), blood (12/12), and liver (12/12) of dogs inoculated with strain 82. Only 3 of 14 dogs became infected after inoculation with strain RM 52. Histopathologic lesions in infected dogs included interstitial nephritis, renal tubular degeneration and necrosis, pulmonary hemorrhage, and hepatic edema and perivasculitis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Conjunctival exposure to L kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa strain 82 resulted in acute leptospirosis in all inoculated dogs, but only 3 of 14 dogs inoculated with strain RM 52 became infected. This method of infection by serovar grippotyphosa can be used to study the pathogenesis and prevention of leptospirosis in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1100–1107)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the distribution of lesions and extent of tissues infected with Mycobacterium bovis in a captive population of white-tailed deer.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—116 captive white-tailed deer.

Procedure—Deer were euthanatized, and postmortem examinations were performed. Tissues with gross lesions suggestive of tuberculosis were collected for microscopic analysis and bacteriologic culture. Tissues from the head, thorax, and abdomen of deer with no gross lesions were pooled for bacteriologic culture. Tonsillar, nasal, oral, and rectal swab specimens, fecal samples, and samples of hay and pelleted feed, soil around feeding sites, and water from 2 natural ponds were collected for bacteriologic culture.

ResultsMycobacterium bovis was isolated from 14 of 116 (12%) deer; however, only 9 of 14 had lesions consistent with tuberculosis. Most commonly affected tissues included the medial retropharyngeal lymph node and lung. Five of 14 tuberculous deer had no gross lesions; however, M bovis was isolated from pooled tissue specimens from the heads of each of these deer. Bacteriologic culture of tonsillar swab specimens from 2 of the infected deer yielded M bovis. Mean (± SEM) age of tuberculous deer was 2.5 ± 0.3 years (range, 0.5 to 6 years). Mycobacterium bovis was not isolated from feed, soil, water, or fecal samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Examination of hunter-killed white-tailed deer for tuberculosis commonly includes only the lymph nodes of the head. Results of such examinations may underestimate disease prevalence by as much as 57%. Such discrepancy should be considered when estimating disease prevalence. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1921–1924)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the extent of leptospirosis in persons exposed to infected swine, confirm the source of disease, define risk factors for infection, and identify means for preventing additional infections during an outbreak in Missouri in 1998.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Sample Population—240 people and 1,700 pigs.

Procedure—An epidemiologic investigation was conducted of people exposed to infected pigs from the University of Missouri-Columbia swine herd. The investigation included review of health of the pigs, a crosssectional study of the people handling the pigs, serologic testing of human and porcine sera, and risk-factor analysis for leptospirosis within the human population.

Results—Serologic testing of samples collected at the time of the investigation indicated that 59% of the pigs had titers to leptospires, denoting exposure. Of the 240 people in the exposed study population, 163 (68%) were interviewed, and of these, 110 (67%) submitted a blood sample. Nine (8%) cases of leptospirosis were confirmed by serologic testing. Risk factors associated with leptospirosis included smoking (odds ratio [OR], 14.4; 95% confidence interval [CI],1.39 to 137.74) and drinking beverages (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.04 to 24.30) while working with infected pigs. Washing hands after work was protective (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.81).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Leptospirosis is a risk for swine producers and slaughterhouse workers, and may be prevented through appropriate hygiene, sanitation, and animal husbandry. It is essential to educate people working with animals or animal tissues about measures for reducing the risk of exposure to zoonotic pathogens. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:676–682)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association