Objective—To investigate the disposition kinetics of flunixin meglumine when administered IV to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Patagonian conures (Cyanoliseus patagonus).
Design—Prospective cohort study.
Animals—8 adult Patagonian conures and 24 adult budgerigars.
Procedures—Injectable flunixin meglumine (50 mg/mL) was diluted to 10 and 1. 0 mg/mL and administered IV at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg (2.3 mg/lb) to Patagonian conures and budgerigars, respectively.
Results—In budgerigars, the elimination half-life was 0.72 hours and the mean residence time was 0.73 hours. In Patagonian conures, the elimination half-life was 0.91 hours and the mean residence time was 1.20 hours. The concentration of flunixin was below the assay's limit of quantification (0.5 μg/mL) at 3 and 6 hours in budgerigars and Patagonian conures, respectively. A single budgerigar developed adverse effects (lethargy and signs of depression) for approximately 15 minutes following drug administration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The half-life of flunixin in Patagonian conures and budgerigars was short following IV administration; however, results of this study suggested that IV administration of injectable flunixin meglumine at 5.0 mg/kg resulted in plasma concentrations that could potentially be anti-inflammatory and analgesic in budgerigars and Patagonian conures.
Objective—To determine rapidity of spread and
onset and duration of viremia, virus shedding, and
antibody production in parrots naturally infected with
avian polyomavirus (APV).
Animals—92 parrots in 2 aviaries.
Procedure—Blood samples were obtained from parrots
naturally exposed to APV during a 3- to 4-month
period for determination of serum virus neutralizing
antibody and detection of viral DNA. Nestlings from the
next year's hatch were monitored for APV infection.
Results—The first indication of inapparent infection
was viremia, which developed simultaneously with
or was followed within 1 week by cloacal virus shedding
and antibody production. Cloacal virus shedding
continued after viremia ceased. During viremia, viral
DNA was detected continuously in blood samples.
Viral DNA was detected in serial cloacal swab specimens
in most birds, but it was detected inconsistently
in 6 birds and not detected in 3 birds, even
though these birds were viremic. Duration of cloacal
virus shedding was ≤ 4.5 months. In 1 aviary, prevalence
of infection was 88% and dissemination of
virus through the 3-room building required 4.5
months. In the second aviary, a single-room nursery,
prevalence of infection was ≥ 90%. For all affected
birds, infection could be detected 18 days after the
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—If a single
sampling is used for polymerase chain reaction detection
of viral DNA, blood and cloacal swab specimens
are required. In nestling nonbudgerigar parrots, cloacal
virus shedding may persist for 4.5 months.
Management protocols alone are sufficient to prevent
introduction of APV into a nursery. (J Am Vet Med