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  • Author or Editor: David N. Phalen x
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Tissue specimens and serum samples obtained from adult budgerigars in various stages of reproduction housed in an aviary with enzootic avian polyomavirus (apv) disease were examined by means of polymerase chain reaction techniques for apv dna. Although the birds were apparently healthy, apv dna could be detected in all 40 birds examined (inapparent infection rate, 100%). Viral dna was found in most organ systems examined. Analysis of data suggested that organ virus concentrations were lower in breeding than in nonbreeding birds.

Serum samples from 144 birds were examined for virus-neutralizing (vn) antibody. All serum samples had detectable vn antibody titers. Determining vn titer had a sensitivity of 100% for detection of apv infection in birds and was more sensitive than analysis of droppings by use of polymerase chain reaction techniques to detect apv infection in 6-month-old birds. Analysis of the data suggested that lower vn antibody titers were associated with longer duration of continuous breeding.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To investigate the disposition kinetics of flunixin meglumine when administered IV to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Patagonian conures (Cyanoliseus patagonus).

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—8 adult Patagonian conures and 24 adult budgerigars.

Procedures—Injectable flunixin meglumine (50 mg/mL) was diluted to 10 and 1. 0 mg/mL and administered IV at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg (2.3 mg/lb) to Patagonian conures and budgerigars, respectively.

Results—In budgerigars, the elimination half-life was 0.72 hours and the mean residence time was 0.73 hours. In Patagonian conures, the elimination half-life was 0.91 hours and the mean residence time was 1.20 hours. The concentration of flunixin was below the assay's limit of quantification (0.5 μg/mL) at 3 and 6 hours in budgerigars and Patagonian conures, respectively. A single budgerigar developed adverse effects (lethargy and signs of depression) for approximately 15 minutes following drug administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The half-life of flunixin in Patagonian conures and budgerigars was short following IV administration; however, results of this study suggested that IV administration of injectable flunixin meglumine at 5.0 mg/kg resulted in plasma concentrations that could potentially be anti-inflammatory and analgesic in budgerigars and Patagonian conures.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine rapidity of spread and onset and duration of viremia, virus shedding, and antibody production in parrots naturally infected with avian polyomavirus (APV).

Design—Case series.

Animals—92 parrots in 2 aviaries.

Procedure—Blood samples were obtained from parrots naturally exposed to APV during a 3- to 4-month period for determination of serum virus neutralizing antibody and detection of viral DNA. Nestlings from the next year's hatch were monitored for APV infection.

Results—The first indication of inapparent infection was viremia, which developed simultaneously with or was followed within 1 week by cloacal virus shedding and antibody production. Cloacal virus shedding continued after viremia ceased. During viremia, viral DNA was detected continuously in blood samples. Viral DNA was detected in serial cloacal swab specimens in most birds, but it was detected inconsistently in 6 birds and not detected in 3 birds, even though these birds were viremic. Duration of cloacal virus shedding was ≤ 4.5 months. In 1 aviary, prevalence of infection was 88% and dissemination of virus through the 3-room building required 4.5 months. In the second aviary, a single-room nursery, prevalence of infection was ≥ 90%. For all affected birds, infection could be detected 18 days after the first death.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—If a single sampling is used for polymerase chain reaction detection of viral DNA, blood and cloacal swab specimens are required. In nestling nonbudgerigar parrots, cloacal virus shedding may persist for 4.5 months. Management protocols alone are sufficient to prevent introduction of APV into a nursery. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:32–36)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association