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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether a full-body spandex garment would alter rectal temperatures of healthy dogs at rest in cool and warm environments.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—10 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Each dog was evaluated at a low (20° to 25°C [68° to 77°F]) or high (30° to 35°C [86° to 95°F]) ambient temperature while wearing or not wearing a commercially available whole-body spandex garment designed for dogs. Oxygen consumption was measured by placing dogs in a flow-through indirect calorimeter for 90 to 120 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured before dogs were placed in the calorimeter and after they were removed.

Results—Rectal temperature increased significantly more at the higher ambient temperature than at the lower temperature and when dogs were not wearing the garment than when they were wearing it. The specific rate of oxygen consumption was significantly higher at the lower ambient temperature than at the higher temperature.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that wearing a snug spandex body garment does not increase the possibility that dogs will overheat while in moderate ambient temperatures. Instead, wearing such a garment may enable dogs to better maintain body temperature during moderate heat loading. These results suggest that such garments might be used for purposes such as wound or suture protection without causing dogs to overheat. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:71–74)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe changes in venous blood gas analytes during isoflurane anesthesia in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—16 black-tailed prairie dogs.

Procedures—Black-tailed prairie dogs were placed in an anesthesia chamber for induction of general anesthesia, which was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen delivered via mask. Immediately following anesthetic induction, a venous blood sample was obtained from the medial saphenous vein; a second venous blood sample was obtained just prior to anesthetic gas shutoff. An evaluation of venous blood gas analytes was performed on each sample. General linear mixed models with repeated measures were used for data analyses.

Results—Median anesthetic time was 90 minutes (range, 60 to 111 minutes). A significant increase from immediately after induction to completion of anesthesia was observed in Pco 2 and mean blood chloride ion, BUN, and creatinine concentrations. A decrease in Po 2, mean blood pH, and anion gap was observed from induction of anesthesia to completion. No significant differences during anesthesia were observed in mean base excess or blood bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, blood glucose, lactate, and total CO2 concentrations. No complications occurred during or after anesthesia for any animal.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Examination of prairie dogs often requires general anesthesia, with isoflurane currently the inhalation agent of choice. Results suggested respiratory acidosis and relative azotemia may occur during isoflurane anesthesia of prairie dogs. Given the increased risk associated with anesthesia in small mammals and the propensity for respiratory disease in prairie dogs, insight into physiologic changes associated with isoflurane anesthesia in healthy prairie dogs can aid in perioperative evaluation and anesthetic monitoring in this rodent species.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate severity of medial patellar luxation (MPL) and frequency of concomitant cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—162 dogs (266 stifle joints).

Procedures—Medical records of 162 small-breed dogs with MPL were reviewed. Signalment, body weight, luxation grade, bilateral or unilateral MPL, CCLR, and difference in luxation grades between stifle joints were evaluated. Association between severity of MPL and CCLR was investigated.

Results—58 dogs had unilateral MPL, and 104 dogs had bilateral MPL. Dogs ranged from 8.4 months to 16.7 years of age (mean, 5.7 years), and mean body weight was 5.45 kg (12 lb). Forty-one percent of all dogs had concomitant CCLR. Mean age for dogs with MPL alone was 3.0 years, which differed significantly from mean age of dogs with MPL and concomitant CCLR (7.8 years). Dogs with grade IV MPL were significantly more likely to have concomitant CCLR than were dogs with any other grade of MPL. In dogs with bilateral MPL and unilateral CCLR, there was a significantly higher grade of luxation in the stifle joint with CCLR.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Small-breed dogs with MPL and concomitant CCLR were older than were dogs with only MPL. Dogs with grade IV MPL were more likely to have CCLR than were dogs with other grades of MPL. Most dogs with concomitant CCLR had a higher MPL grade in the affected stifle joint than in the intact joint. These findings should be beneficial in client education and clinical diagnosis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop a model for measuring rotary stability of the canine elbow joint and to evaluate the relative contribution of the anconeal process (AN), lateral collateral ligament (LCL), and medial collateral ligament (MCL).

Sample Population—18 forelimbs from 12 canine cadavers.

Procedure—Forelimbs were allocated to 3 experimental groups (6 forelimbs/group). Each intact forelimb was placed in extension at an angle of 135° and cycled 50 times from –16° (pronation) to +28° (supination) in a continuous manner at 2.0 Hz. Cycling was repeated following sectioning of the structure of interest (group 1, AN; group 2, LCL; and group 3, MCL). Torque at –12° (pronation) and +18° (supination) was measured for each intact and experimentally sectioned limb. A Student t test was performed to compare torque values obtained from intact verses experimentally sectioned limbs and for comparison with established criteria for differentiation of primary (≥ 33%), secondary (10 to 33%), and tertiary rotational stabilizers (< 10%).

Results—In pronation, the AN was the only primary stabilizer (65%). For supination, the LCL was a primary stabilizer (48%), AN was a secondary stabilizer (24%), and MCL was a tertiary stabilizer (7%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—With the elbow joint in extension at an angle of 135°, the AN is a primary rotational stabilizer in pronation, and the LCL is a primary stabilizer in supination. Disruption of the AN or LCL may affect rotary range of motion or compromise stability of the elbow joint in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1520–1526)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the distribution of force between the articular surfaces of the humerus and radius and between the humerus and ulna in normal canine forelimbs.

Sample population—12 cadaveric canine right forelimbs.

Procedure—Transarticular force maps were created by placing a tactile array pressure sensor into the elbow joint cavity and loading cadaveric forelimbs in a materials testing system. Mean joint forces were determined at loads of 50, 100, 150, and 200 N.

Results—All tests produced 2 distinct areas of high load that corresponded with the proximal articular surfaces of the radius and ulna. Mean forces for the radial proximal articular surface were slightly but significantly greater than for the ulna, averaging 51% to 52% of total force for all applied loads.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The proximal articular surface of the ulna contributes substantially to load transfer through the canine elbow joint. Abnormalities, which increase this load, might contribute to canine elbow joint dysplasia, specifically fragmentation of the medial coronoid process and osteochondritis dissecans of the medial aspect of the humeral condyle. In the treatment of these conditions, the normal force distribution within the canine elbow joint should be taken into consideration. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:132–135)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of sliding and wedge osteotomies of the humerus on the joint surface contact areas in anatomically normal elbow joints of dogs.

Sample Population—Left thoracic limbs from 5 skeletally mature mixed-breed canine cadavers.

Procedure—Joint casting was performed by placement of colored polymethylmethacrylate in the elbow joint cavity followed by loading in a materials testing system at physiologic angle and load. Joint casting was performed in unaltered specimens, after 10° medial opening wedge osteotomy, and after lateral sliding osteotomy of the proximal portion of the humerus. Computer-aided analysis of photographs of proximal radial and ulnar articular surfaces after each casting procedure was performed.

Results—The lateral sliding humeral osteotomy and 10° medial opening wedge osteotomy significantly altered joint surface contact regions of the canine elbow joint. Osteotomies resulted in a reduction in the size of the radial, ulnar, and combined radioulnar contact areas. Both osteotomies also resulted in craniolateral migration of the radial contact area and craniomedial recession of the ulnar contact area. Although the reduction in ulnar contact area with these treatments is consistent with our hypotheses, the reduction in radial contact area was not anticipated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Humeral osteotomies alter joint surface contact areas of the canine elbow joint in vitro. Humeral osteotomies may decrease contact areas on the diseased region of the joint in dogs with elbow dysplasia; however, the overall decrease in joint surface contact area suggests that these procedures may induce focal increases in pressure that may cause iatrogenic cartilage damage when applied in vivo. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:506–511)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine signalment, history, and clinical, necropsy, and microbiologic findings in dairy cows with hemorrhagic bowel syndrome.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—22 adult dairy cows from a single farm in Colorado.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, medical and reproductive history, the owner's chief complaints, results of physical examinations and ancillary diagnostic tests, treatment and response to treatment, results of microbiologic testing, and, if applicable, postmortem findings.

Results—Common clinical signs were acute signs of profound depression, decreased milk production, tachycardia, ruminal stasis, abdominal distention, and dark clotted blood in the feces. Rectal examination revealed distended loops of small intestine in 7 of 14 cows. Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed small intestinal ileus and distention in 12 of 12 cows and homogeneous echogenic intraluminal material compatible with intraluminal hemorrhage and clot formation in 4. Seven of 8 cows treated medically died; 9 of 13 cows that underwent surgery died or were euthanatized. Clostridium perfringens was isolated from fecal samples from 17 of 20 cows. The most common morphologic diagnosis at necropsy was severe necrohemorrhagic enteritis or jejunitis with intraluminal hemorrhage or blood clots. The most prominent histologic finding was severe, segmental submucosal hemorrhage and edema of the small intestine.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results confirm that in adult cattle, hemorrhagic bowel syndrome is a sporadic acute intestinal disorder characterized by intraluminal hemorrhage and obstruction of the small intestine. Clostridium perfringens was consistently isolated from the feces of affected cows. The prognosis for affected cows was grave. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:686–689)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate outcomes of tibial tuberosity avulsion fractures (TTAF) in dogs with implants left in situ past skeletal maturity and to compare clinical outcomes with published outcomes in dogs whose implants were removed 4 to 6 weeks postoperatively.

ANIMALS

47 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

In this retrospective study, 47 dogs had surgery to correct a TTAF before 10 months of age and had the implants left in situ past skeletal maturity. Of these, 42 were followed for a median of 36 months postoperatively. Short- and long-term complications were recorded and compared with historically published data in which the implants were removed within 6 weeks of surgery.

RESULTS

14% (6/42) of our population experienced minor long-term complications (stiffness and lameness), 6% (3/47) experienced major short-term complications (repair failure), and 14% (6/24) experienced major long-term complications (implant removal). There was no difference in long-term outcomes when compared with results of historical reports in which implants were removed 4 to 6 weeks postoperatively. Client satisfaction was high, with 93% (38/41) grading outcomes as excellent and 95% (39/41) stating they would have surgery performed again in retrospect.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Immature dogs with surgically repaired TTAFs have favorable long-term outcomes when the implants were left in situ past skeletal maturity. Dogs with TTAF repairs may not need implant removal unless it becomes clinically necessary. Avoiding a second procedure will decrease patient morbidity, recovery time, and cost.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To optimize methods for the use of computed tomography (CT) to assess pathologic changes in the lungs of calves and to determine the effect of treatment on lung consolidation.

Animals—10 male Holstein calves.

Procedures—Calves were anesthetized to facilitate CT imaging of the thorax. After initial images were obtained, pneumonia was induced in the calves by inoculation through a bronchoscope. Two calves were used in a preliminary study to refine the inoculation dose and optimize CT images. Four calves were administered florfenicol and 4 calves were untreated control animals. Serial images were obtained 24, 48, and 72 hours after inoculation. After final images were obtained, calves were euthanized, and lung consolidation was estimated by use of lung surface area scoring and water displacement. These estimates were compared with estimated lung consolidation obtained by use of CT.

Results—Calves had rapid disease progression. Percentage of lung consolidation was not significantly different between treatment groups for any of the estimation methods. Results of an ANOVA of the 3 assessment methods indicated significant differences among methods. Estimates of the percentage of lung consolidation obtained by use of surface area scoring and CT correlated well, whereas water displacement estimates correlated poorly with other methods of consolidation estimation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Because of the correlation with other methods for estimation of lung consolidation, CT has the potential to be used to monitor disease progression in calves with experimentally induced respiratory tract disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare the incidence of intra-abdominal complications in dogs following resection and functional end-to-end stapled anastomosis (FEESA) versus anastomosis with an end-to-end sutured technique for treatment of enteric lesions.

DESIGN Multicenter, retrospective descriptive cohort study.

ANIMALS 180 dogs.

PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs undergoing intestinal resection and anastomosis at 3 nonaffiliated private practice specialty centers were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative clinical variables, indication for surgery, surgical technique (sutured end-to-end anastomosis vs FEESA), and evidence of postoperative anastomosis site leakage (dehiscence) were recorded. Variables of interest were analyzed for associations with dehiscence.

RESULTS Dehiscence rates of sutured and stapled anastomoses were 12 of 93 (13%) and 4 of 87 (5%), respectively; odds of postoperative dehiscence were significantly lower for dogs with FEESAs than for dogs with sutured anastomoses (OR, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.94). Among dogs that underwent surgery for treatment of intestinal dehiscence after surgery at another facility, subsequent dehiscence developed in 3 of 5 with sutured anastomoses and 0 of 11 with stapled anastomoses. Dehiscence rates varied significantly among clinics. No other variable was associated with risk of dehiscence. Eleven of 16 dogs with dehiscence were euthanized without additional surgery. Impaction at the anastomosis site was identified months or years after surgery in 3 dogs (4 anastomosis sites) that had FEESAs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Odds for dehiscence were significantly greater for sutured end-to-end anastomoses than FEESAs, and dogs undergoing surgery for previous dehiscence were significantly more likely to experience a subsequent dehiscence with a sutured anastomosis. However, variability of procedure types and dehiscence rates among clinics suggested further research is needed to confirm these findings. Obstruction at the anastomosis site was identified as a potential long-term complication of FEESA.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association