Objective—To determine the acute and short-term
adverse effects of a liposome-encapsulated form of
cisplatin at increasing dosages of up to twice the
known maximally tolerated dose (MTD) of unencapsulated
cisplatin in clinically normal dogs.
Procedure—4 dosages (70, 100, 125, and 150 mg/m2)
were evaluated, and the 4 dogs received a total of 9
infusions (1 to 3 infusions/dog). Dogs were monitored
to detect changes in clinical and clinicopathologic status.
Evaluations consisting of a physical examination,
CBC, serum biochemical analysis, and urinalysis were
performed before and 7 and 21 days after each infusion.
Results—Acute anaphylactic-like reactions to liposome-
encapsulated cisplatin were common but clinically
manageable. Nephrotoxicosis and substantial
myelosuppression, toxic effects commonly associated
with unencapsulated cisplatin, were not observed
in dogs treated with liposome-encapsulated cisplatin
at dosages equivalent to twice the known MTD of
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Liposome-encapsulated
cisplatin can be safely administered to
clinically normal dogs at dosages of up to 150 mg/m2
without the need for concurrent hydration protocols.
This was a necessary prerequisite to enable phase I
clinical trials in dogs with naturally developing cancers
that could theoretically benefit from escalation in the
dosage of cisplatin. Determination of an MTD, cumulative
and long-term toxic effects, and efficacy can now
be conducted in the context of phase I trials in tumorbearing
dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1474–1478)
Objective—To compare long-term results of radiotherapy
alone versus radiotherapy followed by exenteration
of the nasal cavity in dogs with malignant
Animals—53 dogs with malignant intranasal neoplasia.
Procedure—All dogs underwent radiotherapy consisting
of administration of 10 fractions of 4.2 Gy each
on consecutive weekdays. For dogs in the surgery
group (n = 13), follow-up computed tomography was
performed, and dogs were scheduled for surgery if
persistent or recurrent tumor was seen.
Results—Perioperative complications for dogs that
underwent surgery included hemorrhage requiring
transfusion (2 dogs) and subcutaneous emphysema
(8). Rhinitis and osteomyelitis-osteonecrosis occurred
significantly more frequently in dogs in the radiotherapy
and surgery group (9 and 4 dogs, respectively)
than in dogs in the radiotherapy-only group (4 and 3
dogs, respectively). Two- and 3-year survival rates
were 44% and 24%, respectively, for dogs in the
radiotherapy group and 69% and 58%, respectively,
for dogs in the surgery group. Overall median survival
time for dogs in the radiotherapy and surgery group
(47.7 months) was significantly longer than time for
dogs in the radiotherapy-only group (19.7 months).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that exenteration of the nasal cavity significantly
prolongs survival time in dogs with intranasal neoplasia
that have undergone radiotherapy. Exenteration after
radiotherapy may increase the risk of chronic complications.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:936–941)
Objective—To compare results of computed tomography (CT) and radiography with histopathologic findings in tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLNs) in dogs with primary lung tumors.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—14 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Criteria for inclusion were diagnosis of primary lung tumor, use of thoracic radiography and CT, and histologic confirmation of TBLN status. Medical records were reviewed for signalment; history; and physical examination, clinicopathologic, radiographic, CT, surgical, and histopathologic findings.
Results—Tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy was not identified via radiography in any dogs. Tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy was diagnosed in 5 dogs via CT. Six dogs had histologic confirmation of metastasis to TBLNs. Radiographic diagnosis yielded 6 false-negative and no false-positive results for tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy. Computed tomography yielded 1 falsenegative and no false-positive results. Sensitivity of CT for correctly assessing TBLN status was 83%, and specificity was 100%. Positive predictive value was 100%, and negative predictive value was 89%. Dogs with lymphadenopathy via CT, histologic confirmation of TBLN metastasis, or primary tumors with a histologic grade > 1 had significantly shorter survival times than their counterparts.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of CT evaluation of TBLN status were in agreement with histopathologic findings and more accurate than use of thoracic radiography for evaluating TBLNs in dogs with primary lung tumors. Computed tomography imaging should be considered as part of the staging process to more accurately assess the TBLNs in dogs with primary lung tumors.
Objective—To characterize demographics and clinical signs and evaluate outcomes of treatments in cats with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—20 cats with TCC.
Procedures—Medical records of 20 cats with a bladder mass identified as a TCC that were examined at 2 veterinary institutions between 1990 and 2004 were evaluated. Signalment, treatments, and outcome were assessed.
Results—Breeds included domestic short hair (n = 14), long hair (2), and medium hair (2) cats, Siamese (1), and Abyssinian (1). All cats had been neutered at an early age (< 1 year old; 13 neutered males and 7 spayed females). The median age at diagnosis of TCC was 15.2 years. The trigone region was affected in 9 cats. Treatments included piroxicam administration, chemotherapy, or surgery as single interventions or in combination; 6 cats were not treated. At the time of diagnosis, 3 cats had pulmonary metastasis and 1 cat had metastasis to local lymph nodes. Median survival time for all 20 cats was 261 days. Nearly all deaths were attributable to progressive disease in the urinary tract. Five cats were lost to follow-up.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In cats, TCC of the urinary bladder appears to be a rare and aggressive disease that is more prevalent in male cats and frequently develops at sites distant from the trigone (unlike TCC in dogs). Nevertheless, initial clinical signs of TCC in cats in this study were similar to those reported for affected dogs.
Objective—To evaluate time to first recurrence (TFR)
and overall survival in cats with presumed vaccine-associated
sarcomas (VAS) treated with excision.
Animals—61 cats with presumed VAS.
Procedure—Medical records of cats that received
excision as the only initial treatment for presumed
VAS were reviewed to evaluate prognosis. Overall
survival curves and TFR were determined.
Results—Median TFR was 94 days. Median TFR for
tumors treated with excision performed at a referral
institution (274 days) was significantly longer than that
for tumors excised by a referring veterinarian (66 days).
Radical first excision yielded significantly longer median
TFR (325 days) than did marginal first excision (79
days). Cats with tumors located on the limbs had
longer median TFR (325 days) than cats with tumors
located in other sites (66 days). Median overall survival
time was 576 days. Significant differences in survival
times between groups were not detected. Few cats
(13.8%) receiving only surgical treatment had longterm
(> 2 years) survival.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Radical first
excision of presumed VAS is essential for extended
TFR. Current recommendations for vaccination of the
distal portions of the extremities are appropriate,
because this practice permits radical excision of
tumors (amputation) that develop at vaccination sites;
however, surgery alone is seldom curative. ( J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2000;216:58–61)
Objective—To determine clinical response and toxic
effects of cis-bis-neodecanoato-trans-R,R-1,2-
diaminocyclohexane platinum (II) (L-NDDP) administered
IV at escalating doses to cats with oral squamous
cell carcinoma (SCC).
Animals—18 cats with oral SCC.
Procedure—Cats that failed to respond to conventional
treatment or had nonresectable tumors were
included. Data included a CBC, serum biochemical
analyses, urinalysis, cytologic examination of a fineneedle
aspirate of enlarged lymph nodes, and thoracic
and oral radiographs for clinical staging. A
starting dose (75 to 100 mg/m2 of L-NDDP) was
administered IV. At 21-day intervals, subsequent
doses increased by the rate of 5 or 10 mg/m2.
Response was evaluated every 21 days by tumor
measurement and thoracic radiography. Quality of
life was assessed by owners, using a performance
Results—On average, cats received 2 treatments.
Toxicoses included an intermittent, acute anaphylactoid-
parasympathomimetic reaction, lethargy or
sedation (≤ 24 hours), inappetence or signs of
depression (≤ 72 hours), mild to moderate increase
in hepatic enzyme activity, and melena. Pulmonary,
renal, or hematopoietic abnormalities were not evident.
Performance status surveys indicated normal
behavior and grooming or decreased activity and
self-care (19/20 assessments), ate well with or
without assistance (15/20), and did not lose weight
(15/20). Median survival time was 59.8 days (mean,
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—L-NDDP was
ineffective for treatment of cats with oral SCC. None
of the cats had a complete or partial remission.
Acute toxicoses and poor therapeutic response limit
therapeutic usefulness of L-NDDP in cats, unless
dosage, frequency, and administration procedures
can be improved. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61: