Objective—To determine the pulmonary epithelial lining
fluid (ELF) concentrations and degree of oxidation
of ascorbic acid in horses affected by recurrent airway
obstruction (RAO) in the presence and absence of
neutrophilic airway inflammation.
Animals—6 RAO-affected horses and 8 healthy control
Procedure—Nonenzymatic antioxidant concentrations
were determined in RBC, plasma, and ELF samples
of control horses and RAO-affected horses in the
presence and absence of airway inflammation.
Results—ELF ascorbic acid concentration was
decreased in RAO-affected horses with airway inflammation
(median, 0.06 mmol/L; 25th and 75th percentiles,
0.0 and 0.4 mmol/L), compared with RAOaffected
horses without airway inflammation (1.0
mmol/L; 0.7 and 1.5 mmol/L) and control horses
(2.2 mmol/L; 1.4 and 2.2 mmol/L). Epithelial lining fluid
ascorbic acid remained significantly lower in RAOaffected
horses without airway inflammation than in
control horses. Moreover, the ELF ascorbic acid redox
ratio (ie, ratio of the concentrations of dehydroascorbate
to total ascorbic acid) was higher in RAO-affected horses
with airway inflammation (median, 0.85; 25th and
75th percentiles, 0.25 and 1.00), compared with RAOaffected
horses without airway inflammation (0.04; 0.02
and 0.22). The number of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar
lavage fluid was inversely related to the ELF ascorbic
acid concentration ( r = –0.81) and positively correlated
with the ascorbic acid redox ratio ( r= 0.65).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Neutrophilic
inflammation in horses affected by RAO is associated
with a reduction in the ELF ascorbic acid pool.
Nutritional supplementation with ascorbic acid derivatives
in horses affected by RAO is an area for further
investigation. ( Am J Vet Res2004;65:80–87)
First, butorphanol tartrate (5 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was administered IM to birds in a randomized complete crossover design. The temperature prompting a foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus (ie, the thermal threshold) was determined 30 minutes before (baseline) and at various points after treatment administration. Second, But-P407 (12.5 mg/kg) or P407 was administered SC in a similar crossover design. Thermal threshold was determined before and at various points after treatment administration. Third, But-P407 (12.5 mg/kg) or saline solution was administered SC and evaluated as in the second trial. Sedation was scored immediately before each time point in all 3 trials.
In the first trial, a significant increase in thermal threshold was noted 30 minutes after butorphanol tartrate (vs saline solution) administration. No sedation was noted. In the second and third trials, no significant difference was identified between results for But-P407 and those for either control treatment (saline solution or P407). Mild sedation was noted in the second trial following But-P407 administration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested a small but significant thermal antinociceptive effect of butorphanol tartrate lasting between 30 minutes and 1.5 hours in orange-winged Amazon parrots. No antinociceptive effect of butorphanol tartrate was demonstrated when delivered in P407. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential analgesic effects of But-P407.
Objective—To investigate individual- and community-level contextual variables as risk factors for submission of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths or magnesium ammonium phosphate (ie, struvite) uroliths for dogs to a national urolith center, as determined on the basis of urolith submission patterns.
Sample Population—Records of 7,297 dogs from Ontario, Canada, with CaOx or struvite uroliths submitted to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre from 1998 through 2006.
Procedures—Data were analyzed via multilevel multivariable logistic regression.
Results—Individual-level main effects and interactions significantly associated with the risk of submission of CaOx uroliths rather than struvite uroliths included age, sex, breed group, neuter status, body condition, dietary moisture content, diet type, sex-neuter status interaction, sex-age interaction, body condition-age interaction, and breed group—dietary moisture content interaction. In addition, median community family income and being located within a major urban center (ie, Toronto) were significant risk factors for submission of CaOx uroliths, compared with submission of struvite uroliths.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Individual-level and dietary factors for dogs affected the risk of submission of CaOx uroliths, relative to that of struvite uroliths. Interactions among these variables need to be considered when assessing the impact of these risk factors. In addition, community-level or contextual factors (such as community family income and residing in a densely populated area of Ontario) also affected submission patterns, although most of the variance in the risk for submission of CaOx uroliths, compared with the risk for submission of struvite uroliths, was explained by individual-level factors. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1045–1054)
OBJECTIVE To estimate costs associated with prevention and treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in preweaned calves on US beef cow–calf operations.
DESIGN Cross-sectional survey.
SAMPLE 43 beef cow–calf producers whose operations had a history of BRD in preweaned calves.
PROCEDURES Mail and electronic surveys were developed and administered to producers in Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota to obtain information regarding costs of BRD prevention and treatment. Descriptive statistics were generated. Mixed linear regression models were used to assess factors associated with the costs of vaccines, medicine, and labor and percentage time spent on prevention and treatment of BRD in cows, replacement heifers, and preweaned calves.
RESULTS 7 mail and 36 electronic surveys were completed. Median annual costs for BRD vaccines were $2.25, $4.00, and $6.25/animal, and median annual labor costs for vaccination were $4.58, $3.00, and $5.00/animal for cows, heifers, and preweaned calves, respectively. Median annual costs for medicine and labor to treat preweaned calves for BRD were $11.00 and $15.00/ affected calf, respectively. Adjusted mean annual BRD vaccine cost for preweaned calves ($7.67/animal) was significantly greater than that for cows ($3.18/animal) and heifers ($4.48/animal).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that labor costs associated with BRD vaccination and treatment were similar to or exceeded the cost of vaccines and medicine, and most of those labor costs were associated with gathering and sorting cattle. Therefore, costs associated with labor as well as medicine and vaccines should be considered during the development of BRD prevention and treatment plans.
Recent state and federal legislative actions and current recommendations from the World Health Organization seem to suggest that, when it comes to antimicrobial stewardship, use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease can be ranked in order of appropriateness, which in turn has led, in some instances, to attempts to limit or specifically oppose the routine use of medically important antimicrobials for prevention of disease. In contrast, the AVMA Committee on Antimicrobials believes that attempts to evaluate the degree of antimicrobial stewardship on the basis of therapeutic intent are misguided and that use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease may comply with the principles of antimicrobial stewardship. It is important that veterinarians and animal caretakers are clear about the reason they may be administering antimicrobials to animals in their care. Concise definitions of prevention, control, and treatment of individuals and populations are necessary to avoid confusion and to help veterinarians clearly communicate their intentions when prescribing or recommending antimicrobial use.