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Objective

To determine response rate and remission as well as survival times for dogs with multicentric lymphoma treated first with doxorubicin alone or in combination with asparaginase and then with cyclophosphamide, vincristine sulfate, and prednisone (CVP) and to identify prevalence of toxicoses associated with this protocol and factors associated with prognosis.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

121 dogs.

Procedure

Variables evaluated for prognostic value were initial response rate to chemotherapy, age, breed, sex, body weight, histologic grade, clinical stage and substage, previous corticosteroid treatment, and serum calcium concentration.

Results

Median overall remission and survival times for all 121 dogs were 205 and 237 days, respectively. Response rate (complete or partial response) was 88%. Ten dogs were hospitalized because of toxicoses associated with doxorubicin, and 19 dogs were hospitalized because of toxicoses associated with CVP. Asparaginase favorably influenced the initial response rate, but did not significantly influence overall remission or survival times. Initial response rate to chemotherapy, body weight. clinical substage, and serum calcium concentration was found to have prognostic value.

Clinical Implications

For dogs with multicentric lymphoma, treatment with doxorubicin alone or in combination with asparaginase and then with CVP resulted in an acceptable response rate and low prevalence of toxicoses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:512–516)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 36 dogs with synovial sarcoma confirmed by microscopic examination of h&e-stained sections of tissue were selected for retrospective analysis from dogs admitted between 1986 and 1991 to participating institutions of the Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Metastasis was evident at the time of diagnosis in 8 (22%) dogs, and 15 (41%) dogs ultimately developed metastatic tumors. Median survival time for all dogs, as determined by lije-table analysis, was 17 months. For dogs that were subsequently treated and became tumor free, the median disease-free interval was 30 months. Nine dogs had previously had localized excision attempted, but all had recurrence of the tumor locally (median, 4.5 months). Of 29 dogs that underwent amputation, including the 9 with localized recurrence, 2 had tumor recurrence on the amputation stump. Most dogs had survival time and disease-free interval of > 36 months after amputation. Four dogs that had received chemotherapy for tumors of advanced clinical stages did not respond to treatment. One dog that had received locally applied radiotherapy after localized excision did not have evidence of tumor recurrence 2 years after radiotherapy. Clinical stage, histologic grade, and a positive result for tests that used cytokeratin immunohistochemical staining significantly (P < 0.05) influenced survival time and disease-free interval. Analysis of data for the study reported here suggested that histologic criteria can be an excellent predictor of dogs that are likely to have tumor recurrence after amputation and that would most likely benefit from aggressive treatment with adjuvants.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To develop a system to monitor and detect acute infections of the upper respiratory tract (ie, nares, nasopharynx, and pharynx) in horses and to assess the association among specific viral infections, risk factors, and clinical signs of disease.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

151 horses with clinical signs of acute infectious upper respiratory tract disease (IURD) from 56 premises in Colorado.

Procedure

Health management data, blood samples, and nasal or nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained for 151 horses with clinical signs of acute IUBD. Of these horses, 112 had an additional blood sample obtained during convalescence and were considered to have complete sample sets. Samples were tested for evidence of respiratory tract infection by use of ELISA, virus isolation, and serologic testing of paired serum samples.

Results

Viral infections were identified in 65 horses with complete sample sets; influenza virus infection was identified in 43 horses, equine herpesvirus (EHV) infection in 18, and mixed influenza virus and EHV infections in 4. On 14 premises, samples were obtained from more than 1 affected horse. Viral infections were identified in horses on 11 of 14 premises. Equine herpesviruses were isolated from 10 horses. A relationship was not found between vaccination history and identification of EHV or influenza virus infections. An infection with EHV was less likely to be identified in horses with initial (acute) antibody titers > 1:16 to EHV.

Clinical Implications

Influenza virus (specifically, A/equine/2) was the most common virus associated with acute IURD. Use of multiple diagnostic tests and obtaining samples from more than 1 horse in an outbreak may improve detection of viral infections. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:385-390)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Mitoxantrone was administered to 74 dogs with lymphoma at a dosage of 5.0 mg/m2 of body surface, IV, every 3 weeks. Thirty-four dogs had failed to respond to prior treatment with chemotherapeutic agents, which included doxorubicin (33 dogs). The remaining 40 dogs had not received prior treatment.

Complete remission was determined in 19 of 74 dogs (26%), 10 of which had not received prior treatment. The median duration of remission for these 10 dogs was 94 days (range, 49 to 440 days, with 2 dogs still alive at 370 and 440 days, respectively). Nine dogs that had received prior treatment had complete remission that lasted for a median of 126 days (range, 42 to 792 days, with 1 dog still alive at 792 days). The combined remission rate (complete remission plus partial remission) was 41%. Toxicosis was minimal, developing in only 9 dogs and requiring hospitalization of 2 dogs.

We concluded that the complete remission rate ascertained when mitoxantrone was the only treatment administered was low, compared with treatments that involved other chemotherapeutic agents; however, the combined remission rate of 41% indicated that mitoxantrone may be beneficial in the treatment of lymphoma in dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Immunodeficiency was diagnosed as the cause of severe debilitating disease characterized by weight loss, failure to grow, and persistent infections that failed to respond to treatment in 12 young llamas. The llamas were affected after maternal-acquired immunity had decreased; failure of passive transfer of immunoglobulins thus was not suspected. Areas of lymph nodes containing T lymphocytes were hypocellular, suggesting T-cell involvement. High serum immunoglobulin concentrations were not found, despite the existence of infectious disease, suggesting at least secondary B-cell involvement. Results of lymphocyte blastogenesis assays were suggestive of B- and T-cell involvement. It was not possible to determine whether the condition was inherited or acquired.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the protective effects of dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation versus treatment with a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (TXSI) in dogs given high-dose gentamicin.

Design

Clinicopathologic and renal histopathologic changes induced by gentamicin (10 mg/kg of body weight, IM, q 8 h, for 8 days) were compared in dogs fed an n-3 fatty acid-supplemented diet containing a fatty acid ratio of 5.7:1 (n-6:n-3), dogs treated with CGS 12970 (a specific TXSI given at 30 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h, beginning 2 days prior to gentamicin administration), and control dogs. The TXSI-treated and control dogs were fed a diet with a fatty acid ratio of 51.5:1 (n-6:n-3). Both diets were fed beginning 42 days prior to and during the 8-day course of gentamicin administration.

Animals

Eighteen 6-month-old male Beagles, 6 in each group.

Results

After 8 days of gentamicin administration, differences existed among groups. Compared with n-3-supplemented and control dogs, TXSI-treated dogs had higher creatinine clearance. Both TXSI-treated and n-3-supplemented dogs had higher urinary prostaglandin E2 and E3 (PGE2/3) and 6-keto prostaglandin F (PGF) excretion, compared with control dogs. Urinary thromboxane B2 (TXB2) excretion was higher in n-3-supplemented and control dogs, compared with TXSI-treated dogs. Urine PGE2/3-to-TXB2 and PGF-to-TXB2 ratios were increased in TXSI-treated dogs, compared with n-3-supplemented and control dogs, and these ratios were increased in n-3-supplemented dogs, compared with control dogs. In addition, TXSI-treated and n-3-supplemented dogs had lower urinary protein excretion, compared with control dogs. Proximal tubular necrosis was less severe in TXSI-treated dogs, compared with control dogs.

Conclusion

Treatment with CGS 12970 prior to and during gentamicin administration prevented increases in urinary TXB2 excretion and reduced nephrotoxicosis.

Clinical Relevance

Increased renal production/excretion of thromboxane is important in the pathogenesis of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicosis. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:948–956)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research