Objective—To evaluate the reliability of goniometry
by comparing goniometric measurements with radiographic
measurements and evaluate the effects of
sedation on range of joint motion.
Animals—16 healthy adult Labrador Retrievers.
Procedure—3 investigators blindly and independently
measured range of motion of the carpus, elbow,
shoulder, tarsus, stifle, and hip joints of 16 Labrador
Retrievers in triplicate before and after dogs were
sedated. Radiographs of all joints in maximal flexion
and extension were made during under sedation.
Goniometric measurements were compared with
radiographic measurements. The influence of sedation
and the intra- and intertester variability were evaluated;
95% confidence intervals for all ranges of
motion were determined.
Results—Results of goniometric and radiographic
measurements were not significantly different.
Results of measurements made by the 3 investigators
were not significantly different. Multiple measurements
made by 1 investigator varied from 1 to 6°
(median, 3°) depending on the joint. Sedation did not
influence the range of motion of the evaluated joints.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Goniometry
is a reliable and objective method for determining
range of motion of joints in healthy Labrador
Retrievers. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:979–986)
Objective—To determine whether topical application of 1% diclofenac sodium cream would decrease inflammation at sites of IV regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) in healthy horses.
Animals—6 healthy adult horses (12 forelimbs).
Procedures—Bilateral IVRLP with 2.5 g of amikacin sulfate was performed twice in each horse, with 24 hours between each session. Horses were treated with topical 1% diclofenac liposomal cream (treated limbs) or a placebo cream (control limbs). All injection sites were evaluated before the first IVRLP session and 24 hours after the second session by means of ultrasonographic examination by a trained ultrasonographer who was unaware of the treatment received. Circumferential measurements and subjective visible inflammation scores were recorded by a veterinarian who was also unaware of treatment received.
Results—After IVRLP, control limbs had a significantly greater increase in subcutaneous thickness, compared with treated limbs. Ultrasonographic and visual assessment scores were significantly higher in control versus treated limbs. The mean change in limb circumference was greater, but not significantly so, in control limbs, compared with treated limbs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Topical application of 1% diclofenac sodium liposomal cream to sites of IVRLP in healthy horses decreased inflammation as judged by visual assessment and ultrasonography. Decreased inflammation may allow extended use of IVRLP and may result in a reduction in pain in treated horses.
Objective—To determine the electrical impulse duration thresholds (chronaxy) for maximal motor contraction of various muscles without stimulation of pain fibers in dogs.
Animals—10 healthy adult Beagles.
Procedures—The dogs were used to assess the minimal intensity (rheobase) required to elicit motor contraction of 11 muscles (5 in the forelimb [supraspinatus, infraspinatus, deltoideus, lateral head of the triceps brachii, and extensor carpi radialis], 5 in the hind limb [gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, and tibialis cranialis], and the erector spinae). The rheobase was used to determine the chronaxy for each of the 11 muscles in the 10 dogs; chronaxy values were compared with those reported for the corresponding muscles in humans.
Results—Compared with values in humans, chronaxy values for stimulation of AA motor fibers in the biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles and muscles of the more distal portions of limbs were lower in dogs. For the other muscles evaluated, chronaxy values did not differ between dogs and humans.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Application of the dog-specific chronaxy values when performing electrical stimulation for strengthening muscles or providing pain relief is likely to minimize the pain perceived during treatment in dogs.
Objective—To assess the impact of partial immersion in water on vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and vGRF distribution in dogs.
Animals—10 healthy adult dogs.
Procedures—Weight placed on each limb of each dog was measured 3 times (1 scale/limb). Dogs were then immersed in water to the level of the tarsal, stifle, and hip joints, and vGRFs were measured. Coefficients of variation for triplicate measurements were calculated. Mixed-effects ANOVAs were used to compare the vGRF for thoracic versus pelvic limbs and the vGRF at various immersion levels as well as the vGRF distributions among limbs at various immersion levels.
Results—Mean ± SD vGRF before immersion was 249 ± 34 N. It was significantly decreased by 9% after immersion to the tarsal joints (227 ± 32 N), by 15% after immersion to the stifle joints (212 ± 21 N), and by 62% after immersion to the hip joints (96 ± 20 N). The vGRFs were significantly higher for the thoracic limbs than for the pelvic limbs before immersion and at all immersion levels. Dogs placed 64% of their weight on the thoracic limbs before immersion. That ratio did not differ significantly after immersion to the tarsus (64%) or stifle (63%) joints, but was significantly larger after immersion to the hip joints (71%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—vGRF decreased as the depth of immersion increased. The thoracic limb-to-pelvic limb vGRF ratio was unchanged in dogs after immersion to the tarsal or stifle joints, but it increased after immersion to the hip joints.
Case Description—A 6-month-old male Bactrian camel was examined because of a 3-week history of lameness of the left hind limb.
Clinical Findings—Lameness was initially detected in the left hind limb but resolved and was detected in the right hind limb during treatment. Lameness increased during periods of rapid growth. Radiography revealed multiple small opacities of the medullary cavity of several long bones throughout treatment. Core bone biopsies of lesions in the tibiae revealed lamellar bone with areas of loose connective tissue, osteoblasts in the medullary cavity, and periosteal new bone formation, all which were consistent with panosteitis.
Treatment and Outcome—Palliative treatment was attempted with epidural and transdermal administration of analgesics. Flunixin meglumine was administered PO, which coincided with an abrupt increase in serum creatinine concentration. Performance of multiple diagnostic bone biopsies led to remission of clinical signs of pain.
Clinical Relevance—Panosteitis should be a differential diagnosis for shifting limb lameness in young camels. Bone biopsies can be useful for diagnosis of panosteitis and possible relief of pain associated with the disease. Bactrian camels may be susceptible to the renal toxicity of flunixin meglumine, especially when dehydrated.
Objective—To detect matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in serum and CSF and determine relationships between MMP activity and severity of disease, duration of clinical signs, and duration of hospitalization in dogs with acute intervertebral disk disease (IVDD).
Animals—35 dogs with acute IVDD and 8 clinically normal control dogs.
Procedure—CSF and serum were collected from affected and control dogs. Zymography was used to detect MMP-9.
Results—Activity of MMP-9 in CSF was detected in 6 of 35 dogs with IVDD; activity was significantly more common in dogs with duration of signs < 24 hours. Paraplegic dogs were more likely to have MMP-9 activity in the CSF than non-paraplegic dogs. No significant difference in hospitalization time was detected in dogs with IVDD between those with and without activity of MMP-9 in the CSF. Serum MMP-9 was detected more frequently in dogs with IVDD than in control dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data were consistent with results of experimental rodent spinal cord injury studies that indicate that MMP-9 is expressed early during secondary injury.
Objective—To determine clinical response and toxic
effects of cis-bis-neodecanoato-trans-R,R-1,2-
diaminocyclohexane platinum (II) (L-NDDP) administered
IV at escalating doses to cats with oral squamous
cell carcinoma (SCC).
Animals—18 cats with oral SCC.
Procedure—Cats that failed to respond to conventional
treatment or had nonresectable tumors were
included. Data included a CBC, serum biochemical
analyses, urinalysis, cytologic examination of a fineneedle
aspirate of enlarged lymph nodes, and thoracic
and oral radiographs for clinical staging. A
starting dose (75 to 100 mg/m2 of L-NDDP) was
administered IV. At 21-day intervals, subsequent
doses increased by the rate of 5 or 10 mg/m2.
Response was evaluated every 21 days by tumor
measurement and thoracic radiography. Quality of
life was assessed by owners, using a performance
Results—On average, cats received 2 treatments.
Toxicoses included an intermittent, acute anaphylactoid-
parasympathomimetic reaction, lethargy or
sedation (≤ 24 hours), inappetence or signs of
depression (≤ 72 hours), mild to moderate increase
in hepatic enzyme activity, and melena. Pulmonary,
renal, or hematopoietic abnormalities were not evident.
Performance status surveys indicated normal
behavior and grooming or decreased activity and
self-care (19/20 assessments), ate well with or
without assistance (15/20), and did not lose weight
(15/20). Median survival time was 59.8 days (mean,
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—L-NDDP was
ineffective for treatment of cats with oral SCC. None
of the cats had a complete or partial remission.
Acute toxicoses and poor therapeutic response limit
therapeutic usefulness of L-NDDP in cats, unless
dosage, frequency, and administration procedures
can be improved. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61: