CASE DESCRIPTION A 15-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was examined for treatment of a recurrent neoplastic mass in the left upper eyelid that had been excised 6 months earlier by the referring veterinarian.
CLINICAL FINDINGS An apparently nonpainful firm cutaneous mass (approx 2 × 2 mm) was located on the lateral third of the left upper eyelid near the scar from the previous surgical excision.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Approximately one-third of the left upper lip was used as a subdermal plexus (lip-to-lid) flap to cover the defect created by en bloc excision of the eyelid mass. A bridge incision between the donor and recipient sites was used so that the eyelid could be reconstructed in 1 procedure. Histologic evaluation confirmed that the mass had been completely excised. Both the donor and recipient flap sites healed well without complications. The procedure resulted in excellent functional and cosmetic results with no recurrence of the mass at 14 months after surgery.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE The described lip-to-lid technique was a simple 1-stage method for reconstructing an upper eyelid of a cat following radical tumor resection that provided excellent functional and cosmetic results.
PROCEDURES Tear production was measured with the phenol red thread test (PRTT), modified Schirmer tear test (mSTT), and endodontic absorbent paper points tear test (EAPPTT). The IOP was measured by use of rebound tonometry. Correlations between test results and body weight were evaluated.
RESULTS Mean ± SD values for the IOP, PRTT, EAPPTT, mSTT, HPFL, and blink frequency for all 80 eyes were 4.55 ± 1.33 mm Hg, 5.57 ± 1.51 mm/15 s, 4.52 ± 1.55 mm/min, 2.07 ± 0.97 mm/min, 5.84 ± 0.45 mm, and 1.68 ± 0.43 blinks/min, respectively. For all variables, values did not differ significantly between the right and left eyes or between males and females. There was no correlation between measured variables and body weight.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results for this study provided information on values for the IOP, PRTT, mSTT, EAPPTT, HPFL, and eye blink frequency in healthy Syrian hamsters. It was important to determine reference intervals for this species because they commonly are kept as pets or used as research animals.
Objective—To identify changes in folate status of
mares and foals during lactation and growth,
Animals—20 Thoroughbred mares and foals.
Procedures—Pregnant mares, and following foaling
the same mares with their foals, were maintained on
mixed grass-legume pasture and fed either a traditional
dietary supplement rich in sugar and starch (SS) or a
dietary supplement high in fat and fiber (FF). Blood
samples were collected monthly from mares and foals
up to 6 months after foaling. Total folate concentration
in feed and forage was determined. Analyses of plasma
folate, RBC folate, plasma homocysteine (HCY),
and milk folate concentrations were performed.
Results—Mare plasma folate concentrations
declined moderately during 6 months of lactation.
Mare RBC folate concentrations initially increased
after foaling up to 3 months but declined toward the
end of the study. Plasma HCY concentration was
higher for mares fed the SS supplement, compared
with mares fed the FF supplement from foaling to 6
months of lactation. Milk folate concentrations
decreased during the first 3 months and then
increased. Foal plasma folate initially declined but
then increased. Stable concentrations of RBC folate
were observed in foals. Plasma HCY concentrations
in foals were unaffected by growth during the last 5
months. References range values for plasma folate,
RBC folate, milk folate, and plasma HCY concentrations
in healthy lactational mares and young growing
foals were determined.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Folate status
was not impaired in lactating mares and growing foals
under the conditions in our study. It appears that
folate supplementation is not necessary. (Am J Vet
To determine effects of diurnal variation and anesthetic agents on intraocular pressure (IOP) in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).
90 healthy adult Syrian hamsters (45 males and 45 females).
IOP was measured with a rebound tonometer. In phase 1, IOP was measured in all hamsters 3 times during a 24-hour period (7 am, 3 pm, and 11 pm). In phase 2, hamsters were assigned to 5 groups (18 animals [9 males and 9 females]/group). Each group received an anesthetic agent or combination of anesthetic agents (ketamine hydrochloride, xylazine hydrochloride, diazepam, ketamine-diazepam [KD], or ketamine-xylazine [KX] groups) administered via the IP route. The IOP was measured before (time 0 [baseline]) and 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after administration of drugs.
Mean ± SD IOP values were 2.58 ± 0.87 mm Hg, 4.46 ± 1.58 mm Hg, and 5.96 ± 1.23 mm Hg at 7 am, 3 pm, and 11 pm, respectively. Mean baseline IOP was 6.25 ± 0.28 mm Hg, 6.12 ± 0.23 mm Hg, 5.75 ± 0.64 mm Hg, 5.12 ± 1.40 mm Hg, and 4.50 ± 1.30 mm Hg for the ketamine, xylazine, diazepam, KD, and KX groups, respectively. A significant decrease in IOP, compared with baseline IOP, was detected in only the KX group at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after drug administration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Maximum IOP in Syrian hamsters was detected at night. The ketamine-xylazine anesthetic combination significantly decreased IOP in Syrian hamsters.
Objective—To evaluate intestinal permeability and
gluten sensitivity in a family of Soft-Coated Wheaten
Terriers (SCWT) affected with protein-losing
enteropathy (PLE), protein-losing nephropathy (PLN),
Animals—6 affected adult dogs.
Procedure—Intestinal biopsy specimens, urine protein-
to-creatinine ratio, serum concentrations of albumin
and globulin, and concentration of α1-protease
inhibitor in feces were evaluated before, during, and
13 weeks after daily administration of 10 g of gluten
for 7 weeks. Eosinophils and lymphocytes-plasmacytes
were enumerated in intestinal biopsy specimens.
Intestinal permeability was evaluated before
and during the sixth week of gluten administration via
cellobiose-mannitol and chromium-EDTA absorption
Results—Serum globulin concentration decreased significantly
after prolonged administration of gluten.
Although not significant, there was an increase in lymphocytes-
plasmacytes and a decrease in eosinophils in
intestinal biopsy specimens. Furthermore, these counts
were greater than those reported for clinically normal
dogs. Gluten administration did not increase intestinal
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Daily administration
of gluten was associated with a significant
decrease in serum globulin concentration in SCWT
affected with PLE or PLN, but other variables
remained unchanged. Although enhanced wheatgluten
sensitivity may be one factor involved in the
pathogenesis of PLE or PLN in SCWT, this syndrome
does not appear to be the result of a specific sensitivity
to gluten. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:518–524)
Objective—To detect matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in serum and CSF and determine relationships between MMP activity and severity of disease, duration of clinical signs, and duration of hospitalization in dogs with acute intervertebral disk disease (IVDD).
Animals—35 dogs with acute IVDD and 8 clinically normal control dogs.
Procedure—CSF and serum were collected from affected and control dogs. Zymography was used to detect MMP-9.
Results—Activity of MMP-9 in CSF was detected in 6 of 35 dogs with IVDD; activity was significantly more common in dogs with duration of signs < 24 hours. Paraplegic dogs were more likely to have MMP-9 activity in the CSF than non-paraplegic dogs. No significant difference in hospitalization time was detected in dogs with IVDD between those with and without activity of MMP-9 in the CSF. Serum MMP-9 was detected more frequently in dogs with IVDD than in control dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data were consistent with results of experimental rodent spinal cord injury studies that indicate that MMP-9 is expressed early during secondary injury.
Objective—To measure 15F2t isoprostane concentrations in the urine of dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OHE) and dogs undergoing surgery because of intervertebral disk disease (IVDD) and to assess relationships between urinary concentrations of 15F2t isoprostanes and neurologic score in dogs with IVDD.
Animals—11 dogs undergoing OHE and 32 dogs with IVDD undergoing hemilaminectomy.
Procedures—Paired urine samples were obtained at induction of anesthesia and approximately 1 hour after OHE (controls) and were collected from dogs with IVDD at induction of anesthesia (28 samples) and approximately 1 hour after hemilaminectomy (31 samples); 26 paired urine samples were obtained from dogs with IVDD. Urinary isoprostane concentrations were measured by use of a commercial ELISA, and results were adjusted on the basis of urinary creatinine concentrations. Differences in the mean isoprostane-to-creatinine ratio were analyzed. Neurologic score was determined in dogs with IVDD by use of the modified Frankel scoring system.
Results—Urinary isoprostane-to-creatinine ratios were significantly higher in dogs with IVDD than in control dogs before and after surgery. There was no significant difference between values before and after surgery for either group. There was a significant correlation of neurologic score and urinary isoprostane-to-creatinine ratio because dogs that had higher neurologic scores (ie, less severely affected) generally had higher isoprostane-to-creatinine ratios.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urinary isoprostane-to-creatinine ratios were higher in dogs with IVDD before and after surgery. Analysis of these data suggests that dogs with IVDD are in a state of oxidative stress and that preemptive treatment with antioxidants warrants further investigation.
Case Description—5 horses were evaluated because of decreased appetite, weight loss, fever, cough, tachypnea, and respiratory distress.
Clinical Findings—Tachycardia, tachypnea, increased respiratory effort, lethargy, fever, poor body condition, and nasal discharge were detected in various combinations on initial physical examination. Evaluation of the lower portion of the respiratory tract via radiography and ultrasonography revealed a severe nodular interstitial pattern. Histologic examination of lung tissue revealed interstitial expansion of alveolar parenchyma with collagen, intraluminal accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages within the alveoli, and occasional intranuclear inclusion bodies within alveolar macrophages. Equine herpesvirus type 5 was detected in samples of lung tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, or both via polymerase chain reaction assay in all cases. A diagnosis of equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis (EMPF) was established.
Treatment and Outcome—Horses were provided supportive treatment and were administered a variety of medications including corticosteroids and acyclovir. Two horses survived and returned to their previous level of activity. Three horses were euthanized because of either deterioration of clinical condition (n = 2) or failure to improve within 4 weeks of initiation of treatment (1).
Clinical Relevance—EMPF should be considered as a differential diagnosis for adult horses with interstitial pneumonia and should be suspected on the basis of characteristic radiographic, ultrasonographic, and histopathologic findings. Equine herpesvirus type 5 is found in association with EMPF; although the exact pathogenic role this virus plays in EMPF is unknown, equine herpesvirus type 5 may be an etiologic agent or cofactor in the development of EMPF.