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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate data concerning suspected companion animal exposures to possibly hazardous substances reported during telephone calls to the US Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) for characterization of dog and cat exposures to potentially toxic substances in the United States.

SAMPLE

Household-level poisonings events involving dogs and cats in the United States that were reported to the APCC in 2005 through 2014.

PROCEDURES

Substances involved in reported poisonings of dogs and cats were classified into 20 general categories, and descriptive statistical analysis was used to examine the most common categories. Case fatality ratios were estimated for all exposure categories for which a final outcome status of the affected animal was documented.

RESULTS

Over the 10-year study period, 241,261 household-level poisoning events were reported to the APCC from across the United States, of which 86.0% and 14.0% involved dogs and cats, respectively. The most common agent categories reported for dogs included human medicines, foods, and pesticides. The most common agent categories reported for cats included human medicines, plants, and veterinary medicines. Chocolate and Lilium plants were the most commonly reported exposures of dogs and cats, respectively. Fluorouracil (65.2%) and bifenthrin (66.7%) were found to have the highest case fatality ratio for dogs and cats, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The APCC call data can be used to identify the most common toxicological exposures of dogs and cats, understand the epidemiological aspects of these poisonings, and inform education programs for owners and veterinarians. Data from the APCC may be suitable for surveillance of toxicological exposures of companion animals in the United States.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate individual- and community-level contextual variables as risk factors for submission of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths or magnesium ammonium phosphate (ie, struvite) uroliths for dogs to a national urolith center, as determined on the basis of urolith submission patterns.

Sample Population—Records of 7,297 dogs from Ontario, Canada, with CaOx or struvite uroliths submitted to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre from 1998 through 2006.

Procedures—Data were analyzed via multilevel multivariable logistic regression.

Results—Individual-level main effects and interactions significantly associated with the risk of submission of CaOx uroliths rather than struvite uroliths included age, sex, breed group, neuter status, body condition, dietary moisture content, diet type, sex-neuter status interaction, sex-age interaction, body condition-age interaction, and breed group—dietary moisture content interaction. In addition, median community family income and being located within a major urban center (ie, Toronto) were significant risk factors for submission of CaOx uroliths, compared with submission of struvite uroliths.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Individual-level and dietary factors for dogs affected the risk of submission of CaOx uroliths, relative to that of struvite uroliths. Interactions among these variables need to be considered when assessing the impact of these risk factors. In addition, community-level or contextual factors (such as community family income and residing in a densely populated area of Ontario) also affected submission patterns, although most of the variance in the risk for submission of CaOx uroliths, compared with the risk for submission of struvite uroliths, was explained by individual-level factors. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1045–1054)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify factors associated with development of struvite urolithiasis in dogs evaluated at general care veterinary hospitals in the United States.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—508 dogs with a first-time diagnosis of struvite urolithiasis and 7,135 control dogs.

Procedures—Electronic medical records of all dogs evaluated at 787 general care veterinary hospitals in the United States between October 2007 and December 2010 were reviewed to identify dogs that developed struvite urolithiasis and 2 groups of control dogs with no history of urolithiasis. Information extracted included diet, age, sex, neuter status, breed size category, hospital location, and date of diagnosis. Urinalysis results, urolith composition, and other disease conditions were recorded if applicable. Potential risk factors were assessed with univariable and multivariable regression analysis.

Results—Toy- or small-sized breeds had significantly greater odds of struvite urolithiasis, compared with medium- or large-sized breeds. Neutering significantly increased the odds of this outcome in females only; sexually intact females were more likely to develop struvite urolithiasis than were sexually intact males, but only up to 5 years of age. Urinary factors significantly associated with the outcome were basic (vs acidic) pH, presence of RBCs or WBCs, protein concentration > 30 mg/dL, and ketone concentration ≥ 5 mg/dL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Evaluation of demographic characteristics and urinalysis results may be useful in the early identification of struvite urolithiasis in dogs. Periodic urinalysis in dogs is recommended because of the potential health impact of a late diagnosis of urolithiasis.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine pet-related management factors associated with the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli in a population of pet dogs.

SAMPLE 138 dogs from 84 households in Ontario, Canada.

PROCEDURES From October 2005 through May 2006, dogs and households in Ontario, Canada, were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Fecal samples were submitted for culture of Salmonella spp and E coli, which provided 515 bacterial isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for household and dog were created to identify pet-related management factors associated with antimicrobial resistance.

RESULTS Bacterial species, feeding a homemade diet or adding homemade food to the diet, feeding a raw diet or adding anything raw to the diet, feeding a homemade raw food diet, and feeding raw chicken in the past week were significant risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in this population of dogs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, several potentially important pet-related risk factors for the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and E coli in pet dogs were identified. Further evaluation of risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in dogs may lead to development of evidence-based guidelines for safe and responsible dog ownership and management to protect the public, especially pet owners who are immunocompromised.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research