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SUMMARY

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaid) are widely used for treatment of people and animals. Their use is limited by frequent side effects commonly involving the gastrointestinal tract, most important of which is development of ulcerating lesions principally in the stomach. Unfortunately, presence of such lesions is often unsuspected because clinical signs may be overlooked until a complication develops. We reported that such damage can be detected by measuring the increase in gastric permeability that is a hallmark of this condition. Sucrose is a novel probe molecule for determination of site-specific gastric permeability. As a disaccharide, it is large enough to be effectively excluded by the intact gastric epithelium, and because it is rapidly digested within the small intestine, absorption of the intact molecule implies damage proximal to this site. Recently, we found that increased sucrose permeability is useful in predicting presence of endoscopically relevant gastric damage in people. We extended these results to the detection of nsaid-induced gastropathy in dogs. Dogs treated with aspirin developed nsaid-induced gastropathy (including gastric ulceration), and the degree of endoscopically detectable damage correlated well with sucrose permeability. Furthermore, healing of these lesions could also be monitored by sequential measurements of sucrose permeability. Sucrose permeability decreased more rapidly than the disappearance of gastric ulcers, suggesting that this technique is more sensitive to generalized mucosal damage than is the presence of discrete, endoscopically visible ulceration. This was confirmed by creating artificial ulcers in the antrum and observing that sucrose permeability was not increased in this setting. We conclude that determination of increased sucrose permeability is a useful, noninvasive means of predicting presence of gastric damage in dogs treated with nsaid.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine whether treatment with a commercially available nonspecific immunomodulating biologic product would alter the clinical course of disease in neonatal calves.

Design

Systematically randomized, controlled cohort study.

Animals

200 Holstein bull calves 1 to 5 days old.

Procedure

Assessments were performed that included evaluation of fecal consistency, attitude, appetite, and hydration status. Calves with abnormal results were enrolled in the study. Calves were systematically assigned to control or treatment groups (100 calves/group). Calves in the treatment group were given a single IV injection of the biologic product at the time of enrollment, whereas control calves were not given the product. Calves were assessed daily for 5 days to evaluate fecal consistency, attitude, appetite, hydration status, and rectal temperature. Assessments were made without knowledge of group assignment.

Results

Treatment with the immunomodulating product was not associated with a decrease in the number of calves that had moderate or severe departures from clinically normal conditions for attitude, appetite, or hydration on days 1 though 5, compared with control calves. Fecal consistency scores were significantly greater for treated calves on days 1 (P = 0.03) and 5 (P = 0.02), compared with scores for control calves.

Clinical Implications

Administration of the nonspecific immunomodulating biologic product did not significantly affect outcome of clinical disease for calves in the treated group, compared with calves in the control group. On the basis of results of this study, we cannot recommend use of the nonspecific immunomodulating biologic product for the treatment of undifferentiated diarrheal disease in neonatal calves. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1308-1311)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether a renal diet modified in protein, phosphorus, sodium, and lipid content was superior to an adult maintenance diet in minimizing uremic episodes and mortality rate in cats with stage 2 or 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Design—Double-masked, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

Animals—45 client-owned cats with spontaneous stage 2 or 3 CKD.

Procedures—Cats were randomly assigned to an adult maintenance diet (n = 23 cats) or a renal diet (22) and evaluated trimonthly for up to 24 months. Efficacy of the renal diet, compared with the maintenance diet, in minimizing uremia, renal-related deaths, and all causes of death was evaluated.

Results—Serum urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly lower and blood bicarbonate concentrations were significantly higher in the renal diet group at baseline and during the 12- and 24-month intervals. Significant differences were not detected in body weight; Hct; urine protein-to-creatinine ratio; and serum creatinine, potassium, calcium, and parathyroid hormone concentrations. A significantly greater percentage of cats fed the maintenance diet had uremic episodes (26%), compared with cats fed the renal diet (0%). A significant reduction in renal-related deaths but not all causes of death was detected in cats fed the renal diet.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The renal diet evaluated in this study was superior to an adult maintenance diet in minimizing uremic episodes and renalrelated deaths in cats with spontaneous stage 2 or 3 CKD.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Milk samples were collected at onset of 508 episodes of clinical mastitis on a 1,700-cow dairy farm in Michigan. Daily milk production and disease events were recorded for all cows in the herd. Despite statistical association with severity of mastitis, this association was too weak for Nacetyl-(β-d-glucosamimdase (NAGase) activity to be of great value as a prognostic test for clinical mastitis. High milk NAGase activity was significantly (P < 0.0001) associated with: increased duration of treatment; increased duration of clinical signs of mastitis; decreased daily milk production; and increased risk of the cow being culled because of mastitis. The NAGase value was combined with days in milk production, baseline milk production before mastitis onset, parity, and season of onset to predict the outcome of clinical cases as measured by the first 3 aforementioned variables. Statistical models explained little of the variability among cows in duration of treatment (R2 = 0.11), duration of clinical signs of infection (R2 = 0.11), and milk production change (R2 = 0.09).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether a diet used for dogs with renal failure (renal food [RF]) was superior to an adult maintenance food (MF) in minimizing uremic crises and mortality rate in dogs with spontaneous chronic renal failure.

Design—Double-masked, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

Animals—38 dogs with spontaneous chronic renal failure.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to a group fed adult MF or a group fed RF and evaluated for up to 24 months. The 2 groups were of similar clinical, biochemical, and hematologic status. The effects of diets on uremic crises and mortality rate were compared. Changes in renal function were evaluated by use of serial evaluation of serum creatinine concentrations and reciprocal of serum creatinine concentrations.

Results—Compared with the MF, the RF had a beneficial effect regarding uremic crises and mortality rate in dogs with mild and moderate renal failure. Dogs fed the RF had a slower decline in renal function, compared with dogs fed the MF.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dietary modifications are beneficial in minimizing extrarenal manifestations of uremia and mortality rate in dogs with mild and moderate spontaneous chronic renal failure. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that delay in development of uremic crises and associated mortality rate in dogs fed RF was associated, at least in part, with reduction in rate of progression of renal failure. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220: 1163–1170)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UP:C) ≥ 1.0 at initial diagnosis of chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with greater risk of development of uremic crises, death, and progression of renal failure in dogs.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—45 dogs with CRF.

Procedure—Dogs were prospectively assigned to 2 groups on the basis of initial UP:C < 1.0 or ≥ 1.0. The association between magnitude of proteinuria and development of uremic crises and death was determined before and after dogs with initial UP:C ≥ 1.0 were assigned to 3 subgroups and compared with dogs with initial UP:C < 1.0. Changes in reciprocal serum creatinine concentration were used to estimate decrease in renal function.

Results—Initially, dogs had similar clinical characteristics with the exception of systolic blood pressure and UP:C. Relative risks of development of uremic crises and death were approximately 3 times higher in dogs with UP:C ≥ 1.0, compared with dogs with UP:C < 1.0. Relative risk of adverse outcome was approximately 1.5 times higher for every 1-unit increment in UP:C. The decrease in renal function was of greater magnitude in dogs with UP:C ≥ 1.0, compared with dogs with UP:C < 1.0.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Initial UP:C ≥ 1.0 in dogs with CRF was associated with greater risk of development of uremic crises and death, compared with dogs with UP:C < 1.0. Initial determinations of UP:C in dogs with naturally occurring CRF may be of value in refining prognoses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:393–400)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether high systolic blood pressure (SBP) at the time of initial diagnosis of chronic renal failure in dogs was associated with increased risk of uremic crisis, risk of dying, or rate of decline in renal function.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—45 dogs with spontaneous chronic renal failure.

Procedure—Dogs were assigned to 1 of 3 groups on the basis of initial SBP (high, intermediate, low); Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards methods were used to estimate the association between SBP and development of a uremic crisis and death. The reciprocal of serum creatinine concentration was used as an estimate of renal function.

Results—Dogs in the high SBP group were more likely to develop a uremic crisis and to die than were dogs in the other groups, and the risks of developing a uremic crisis and of dying increased significantly as SBP increased. A greater decrease in renal function was observed in dogs in the high SBP group. Retinopathy and hypertensive encephalopathy were detected in 3 of 14 dogs with SBP ≥ 180 mm Hg. Systolic blood pressure remained high in 10 of 11 dogs treated with antihypertensive drugs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that initial high SBP in dogs with chronic renal failure was associated with increased risk of developing a uremic crisis and of dying. Further studies are required to determine whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between high SBP and progressive renal injury and to identify the risks and benefits of antihypertensive drug treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:322–329)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association