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- Author or Editor: David Kelton x
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Objective—To determine the effects of administration of 1 dose of tulathromycin on the incidence of various diseases and growth, identify risk factors for slow growth, and determine the association of Mycoplasma bovis status with the incidence of otitis media in calves.
Design—Randomized controlled trial and cross-sectional study.
Animals—788 dairy heifer calves (median age, 3 days).
Procedures—Calves received tulathromycin or a saline (0.9% NaCl) solution control treatment once. Calves were observed daily for 8 weeks by farm staff to detect diseases. Nasal swab specimens were collected from some calves for Mycoplasma spp culture.
Results—Tulathromycin-treated calves had significantly lower odds of developing otitis media (OR, 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 0.82) versus control calves. Control calves had significantly higher odds of developing diarrhea (OR, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 2.6) versus tulathromycin-treated calves. Control calves and those with failure of passive transfer, fever, lameness, respiratory tract disease, or diarrhea had significantly lower average daily gain versus other calves. Seventeen of the 66 (26%) calves that underwent repeated testing had positive Mycoplasma spp culture results, but positive results were not associated with otitis media. One of 42 calves with otitis media tested for Mycoplasma spp had positive results, and 1 of 43 age-matched calves without otitis media had positive results.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tulathromycin-treated calves in this study had a lower incidence of diarrhea and otitis media versus control calves. Various diseases had negative effects on average daily gain. Mycoplasma bovis status was not associated with otitis media in calves.
OBJECTIVE To explore referring equine veterinarians' expectations of equine veterinary referral centers and specialists.
DESIGN Qualitative, focus group interview–based study.
SAMPLE 6 focus groups comprised of equine practitioners with experience in referral of clients and patients to equine specialists or referral centers (48 referring veterinarians [rDVMs]).
PROCEDURES Focus group sessions were conducted independently and followed a standardized discussion guide consisting of open-ended questions and follow-up probes. Discussions were recorded, and thematic analysis was performed on the content.
RESULTS The overarching theme of participants' discussions was that specialists and referral centers are an extension of the care that rDVMs provide to their clients and patients. The 5 areas that participants described as important to this expectation were rDVM-client relationships, rDVM involvement during referral care, collegial rDVM-specialist relationships, communication between rDVMs and specialists, and the boundaries of referral care. Participating practitioners wanted to be involved during the referral process, which was seen as being facilitated by having a collegial relationship with the specialist and through effective communication during the course of referral care.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Relationships and communications between rDVMs and specialists are important aspects of equine veterinary medicine. Both rDVMs and specialists are likely to benefit from pursuing opportunities to further their relationship by using up-front communication to establish clear role expectations and clear processes for sharing information.
Objective—To determine whether results obtained for milk and serum samples with ELISAs intended for diagnosis of paratuberculosis in dairy cows were comparable to results obtained by means of mycobacterial culture of fecal samples.
Animals—689 lactating dairy cows in 9 Ontario herds.
Procedure—Milk, serum, and fecal samples were obtained from all cows. Fecal samples were submitted for mycobacterial culture. Serum samples were tested with a commercially available ELISA for antibodies against Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, and preserved milk samples were tested with an indirect ELISA for antibodies against M paratuberculosis.
Results—Results were positive for 130 of the 689 (18.9%) serum samples, 77 of the 689 (11.1%) milk samples, and 72 of the 689 (10.4%) fecal samples. The level of agreement between results for milk and serum samples was only moderate. Proportions of positive results for serum and fecal samples were significantly different, but proportions of positive results for milk and fecal samples were not significantly different. In addition, results for milk samples had a higher level of agreement with results of mycobacterial culture than did results for serum samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the indirect ELISA used on milk samples may be a convenient method of detecting paratuberculosis in dairy herds. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005; 226:424–428)
Objective—To determine whether time until culling or risk of culling was associated with Neospora caninum serostatus among Holstein cattle in dairy herds in Ontario.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—3,412 cows in 56 herds.
Procedure—Blood samples were collected, and serum was tested for antibodies against N caninum. Information on cows that were culled was collected during the 1- to 2-year period that producers were unaware of serostatus of individual cows in their herds.
Results—Herd prevalence of N caninum-seropositive cows ranged from 0 to 68.3% (median, 7.0%). During the time of the study, 184 of 359 (51.3%) N caninum-seropositive cows were culled, compared with 1,388 of 3,053 (45.5%) seronegative cows. Mean time from blood sample collection to culling for seronegative cows (289 days; 95% confidence interval, 280 to 299 days) was not significantly different from mean time for seropositive cows (296 days; 95% confidence interval, 269 to 323 days). Survival analysis indicated that N caninum serostatus was not associated with time to culling or risk of culling.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that N caninum serostatus of Holstein cows in Ontario was not significantly associated with either time to culling or risk of culling. Thus, N caninum serostatus alone should not be used to determine whether cows should be culled. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1165–1168)
Objective—To determine the effect of paratuberculosis on culling, milk production, and milk quality in infected dairy herds.
Animals—689 lactating dairy cows in 9 herds.
Procedure—Milk, blood, and fecal samples were obtained from all cows. Fecal samples were evaluated via mycobacterial culture. Serum samples were tested with a commercially available ELISA for antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, and preserved milk samples were tested with an ELISA for antibodies against M paratuberculosis. Mixed effect and proportional hazards models were used to determine the effect of paratuberculosis on 305-day milk, fat, and protein production; somatic cell count linear score; and the risk of culling.
Results—Cows with positive results of bacteriologic culture of feces and milk ELISA produced less milk, fat, and protein, compared with herdmates with negative results. No difference in 305-day milk or fat production was detected in cows with positive results of serum ELISA, compared with seronegative cows. The 3 survival analyses revealed that cows with positive results of each test were at higher risk of being culled than cows with negative results. Paratuberculosis status, as determined by use of all 3 diagnostic tests, was not associated with milk somatic cell count linear score.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that for the 9 herds in this study, paratuberculosis significantly decreased milk production and cow longevity. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1302–1308)
Objective—To determine whether Neospora caninum serostatus was associated with milk production among Holstein cattle in Ontario.
Design—Case-control study and cross-sectional observational study.
Animals—3,702 Holstein cows in 83 herds (casecontrol study) and 3,162 Holstein cows in 57 herds.
Procedure—Herds in the case-control study were grouped on the basis of N caninum abortion status. Herds in the observational study were considered representative of Ontario dairy herds. The N caninum serostatus of individual cows was determined with a kinetic ELISA. Milk production was modeled to compare seropositive with seronegative animals while controlling for parity, days since parturition, and herd clustering.
Results—In the case-control study, 305-day milk production of seropositive cows was significantly less than milk production of seronegative cows in herds with abortions attributable to N caninum infection and in herds with abortions attributable to pathogens other than N caninum, but not in herds without abortion problems. In the observational study, 305-day milk production for seropositive cows was not significantly different from milk production of seronegative cows.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the association between N caninum serostatus and milk production in Ontario Holstein dairy cattle may depend on abortion status of the herd. In herds with abortion problems, regardless of cause, N caninum-seropositive cattle produced less milk, whereas in herds without abortion problems, N caninum-seropositive cattle produced the same amount of milk as seronegative cattle. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1160–1164)