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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To obtain an estimate of the yearly prevalence of injection-site sarcomas in cats.


Mail survey of members of the American Association of Feline Practitioners.


A questionnaire was sent to 1,112 veterinarians.


235 responses were sufficiently complete for inclusion in the study. Overall, responding veterinarians reported 744,993 cat visits in 1992, representing 434,638 individual cats (1.7 visits/cat). The estimated overall prevalence of injection-site sarcomas during 1992 was 0.00021 cases/cat visit (2.1 cases/10,000 cat visits) or 0.00036 cases/cat (3.6 cases/10,000 cats).

Clinical Implications

Results suggest that injection-site sarcomas were rare during 1992.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To establish normal values for pre- and post-prandial bile acids and protein C in Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) pups.


45 harbor seals undergoing rehabilitation at the Vancouver Aquarium Marine Mammal Rescue Centre, 0 to 16 weeks, and deemed healthy aside from malnutrition or maternal separation.


Venous blood was collected from the intervertebral extradural sinus in fasted seals and again 2 hours after a fish meal.


The reference interval (90% CL, confidence limit) for pre-prandial (fasting) bile acids was 17.2 μmol/L to 25.4 μmol/L, post-prandial bile acids were 36.9 μmol/L to 46.4 μmol/L, and protein C was 72.3% to 85.4%, across ages. For comparison between developmental ages, pups were grouped into 3 age classes: < 14 days, 5 to 8 weeks, and 10 to 16 weeks. Age affected pre- and post-prandial bile acids; pups < 14 days had significantly higher pre-prandial bile acids (36.0 μmol/L ± 16.5 μmol/L; P < .0001) than other age groups and pups 5 to 8 weeks had significantly higher post-prandial bile acids (50.4 μmol/L ± 21.9 μmol/L; P < .001). Protein C was also affected by age, with seals < 14 days having significantly lower values (mean, 51.8% ± 16.7%; P < .0001).


This study established normal reference intervals for bile acids in harbor seal pups and offered a preliminary investigation into protein C in pinnipeds. The bile acid values from 0- to 16-week-old seal pups were well above established normal ranges for domestic species, highlighting the utility of age- and species-specific reference ranges. The values presented here and the differences across age classes will aid clinicians in accurately diagnosing hepatobiliary disease in harbor seal pups.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research