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Abstract

Objective—To test the hypothesis that strangulation of the small intestine by a lipoma or in the epiploic foramen is more common in older horses.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—46 horses.

Procedure—Ages of horses with strangulation of the small intestine by a lipoma (n = 29) or in the epiploic foramen (17) were compared with ages of 79 horses with miscellaneous small intestinal lesions. Effects of increasing age on risk of the diseases of interest were examined by use of logistic regression and a 1-sided trend test for binomial proportions.

Results—Mean age of the horses with strangulation in the epiploic foramen (9.6 years) was the same as that for the horses with miscellaneous small intestinal lesions (7.7), but mean age of the horses with strangulation by a lipoma (19.2) was significantly greater than that for the other groups. The proportion of horses with lipoma increased significantly with increasing age, but the proportion with strangulation in the epiploic foramen did not.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results refute the current suggestion that increasing age predisposes horses for strangulation of the small intestine in the epiploic foramen but support the suggestion that the risk of strangulation of the small intestine by a lipoma increases with age. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:87–89)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate survival rate and complications after jejunocecostomy in horses with colic and to compare outcomes after hand-sewn versus stapled side-to-side jejunocecostomy.

Design—Retrospective cohort study. Animals—32 horses.

Procedures—Information was retrieved from medical records and through telephone calls on horses that had a hand-sewn or stapled side-to-side jejunocecostomy for treatment of colic, which was performed by or under the supervision of the same surgeon. KaplanMeier life table analysis was used to compare survival times and rates between horses that underwent a hand-sewn or stapled side-to-side anastomosis.

Results—32 horses met inclusion criteria; 22 underwent a hand-sewn anastomosis, and 10 underwent a stapled anastomosis. Horses in the stapled group had a significantly greater prevalence of postoperative colic and combined postoperative colic and reflux than horses in the hand-sewn group. In the hand-sewn group, repeated celiotomy was performed within the same hospitalization period for 3 of 22 horses; in the stapled group, 4 of 10 horses had repeated celiotomies. Hospital discharge rates (ie, short-term survival rates) were similar between horses in the hand-sewn group (20/22 horses) and those in the stapled group (9/10 horses). Long-term survival rates were similar for both groups, ranging from 5 to 126 months. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Short- and long-term results justify use of jejunocecostomy in horses. Despite similar survival rates between groups, horses that underwent a stapled anastomosis had significantly greater prevalences of postoperative complications than horses that underwent a hand-sewn anastomosis, suggesting that horses were sensitive to minor differences in anastomosis techniques.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine and compare the effect of hoof boots (HBs) and shoes with a toe extension on stance duration, ground reaction force, and sole length in contact with the ground in nonlame horses during walking.

ANIMALS 6 nonlame Standardbreds.

PROCEDURES Force plate gait analyses of the forelimbs were performed while the horses were walking barefoot before manipulation of feet (baseline), while the horses were walking fitted with HBs, while the horses were walking shod with toe-extension shoes, and while the horses were walking barefoot after shoe removal. Horses underwent radiography of both forelimb feet to determine the sole length in contact with the ground when barefoot, wearing HBs, and shod with toe-extension shoes. Stance duration, ground reaction force, and sole length were compared among the various walking sessions.

RESULTS Compared with baseline findings, stance duration increased significantly when horses were fitted with HBs (7%) or toe-extension shoes (5%). Peak forelimb ground reaction force was similar among walking sessions; however, time of braking force peak was significantly greater during the stance phase only when horses wore HBs. Also, the sole length in contact with the ground was significantly longer in horses fitted with HBs (14.3 cm) or shod with the toe-extension shoes (17.6 cm), compared with that for one of the barefoot hooves (12.7 cm).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In nonlame horses, use of HBs prolonged the stance time and time of braking force peak, which is indicative of a slower deceleration phase during limb impact with the ground. Also, the use of HBs prolonged the deceleration phase of the stride and increased the sole length in contact with the ground.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize spatial release of platinum from carboplatin-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CI-CSH) beads by use of an agarose tissue phantom.

SAMPLE 3-mm-diameter beads (n = 60) containing 4.6 mg of carboplatin (2.4 mg of platinum)/bead.

PROCEDURES 18 L of 1% agarose was prepared and poured into 36 containers (10 × 10 × 10 cm), each of which was filled half full (0.5 L/container). After the agarose solidified, 1, 3, 6, or 10 CI-CSH beads were placed on the agar in defined patterns. An additional 36 blocks of agar (0.5 L/block) were placed atop the beads, positioning the beads in the center of 1 L of agar. The experiment was replicated 3 times for each bead pattern for 24, 48, and 72 hours. At these times, representative agarose blocks were sectioned in the x-, y-, and z-planes and labeled in accordance with their positions in shells radiating 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm from the center of the blocks. Agarose from each shell was homogenized, and a sample was submitted for platinum analysis by use of inductively coupled plasma–mass spectroscopy.

RESULTS Platinum diffused from CI-CSH beads at predicted anticancer cytotoxic concentrations for 2 to 5 cm.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results provided information regarding the spatial distribution of platinum expected to occur in vivo. Agarose may be used as a diffusion model, mimicking the characteristics of subcutaneous tissues. Measured platinum concentrations might be used to guide patterns for implantation of CI-CSH beads in animals with susceptible neoplasms.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare results of hematologic testing in nondiabetic and diabetic cats to identify possible indicators of alterations in long-term glucose control.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—117 client-owned cats (76 nondiabetic cats [25 with normal body condition, 27 overweight, and 24 obese] and 41 naïve [n = 21] and treated [20] diabetic cats).

Procedures—Signalment and medical history, including data on feeding practices, were collected. A body condition score was assigned, and feline body mass index was calculated. Complete blood counts and serum biochemical analyses, including determination of fructosamine, thyroxine, insulin, and proinsulin concentrations, were performed. Urine samples were obtained and analyzed.

Results—Glucose and fructosamine concentrations were significantly higher in the naïve and treated diabetic cats than in the nondiabetic cats. Insulin and proinsulin concentrations were highest in the obese cats but had great individual variation. Few other variables were significantly different among cat groups. Most cats, even when obese or diabetic, had unlimited access to food.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that cats at risk of developing diabetes (ie, overweight and obese cats) could not be distinguished from cats with a normal body condition on the basis of results of isolated hematologic testing. A longitudinal study is indicated to follow nondiabetic cats over a period of several years to identify those that eventually develop diabetes. Findings also suggested that dietary education of cat owners might be inadequate.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the rate of development of septic arthritis after elective arthroscopy and evaluate associations between various factors and development of this complication in horses.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—682 horses that underwent arthroscopic procedures at the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital from 1994 to 2003.

Procedures—Information pertaining to signalment, joints treated, whether antimicrobials were administered, and development of postoperative septic arthritis was collected from medical records. Horses with a primary problem of septic arthritis or wounds involving joints were excluded. The following factors were evaluated to determine their roles in joint sepsis: breed, sex, joint, and preoperative and intra-articular administration of antimicrobials. Telephone interviews with clients were used to determine whether unreported septic arthritis had developed.

Results—8 of 932 (0.9%) joints in 7 of 682 (1.0%) horses that underwent arthroscopy developed postoperative septic arthritis. Follow-up information after discharge from the hospital was available for 461 of the 682 horses, and of those, 8 of 627 (1.3%) joints in 7 of 461 (1.5%) horses developed septic arthritis. Breed and joint treated were significant risk factors for development of postoperative septic arthritis, with draft breeds and tibiotarsal joints more likely than others to be affected. Sex, preoperatively administered antimicrobials, and intra-articularly administered antimicrobials were not associated with development of postoperative septic arthritis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results can be used for comparison with data from other institutions and surgical facilities. Additional precautions should be undertaken when arthroscopic surgery involves draft breeds and tibiotarsal joints.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To screen for expression of 9 predominant members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family, including membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), in primary tumor tissue biopsy specimens of vaccine site-associated sarcomas (VSS) in cats and compare expression profiles of VSS with expression profiles of non-VSS and carcinomas.

Sample Population—31 primary tumor tissue biopsy specimens and 6 nontumor (normal) tissue biopsy specimens.

Procedure—Tissue specimens were obtained from primary tumor biopsy specimens of cats. Primers for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay were designed on the basis of known sequences. Data were analyzed for patterns of expression of MMPs, MT-MMPs, and TIMPs. Differences in expression patterns were evaluated among cats of differing genders, ages, metastasis status, and overall survival durations, and between cats with VSS and cats with non-VSS tumor types.

Results—A total of 31 primary tumor tissue biopsy specimens and 6 nontumor (normal) tissue biopsy specimens were screened for the presence of 6 MMPs and 3 TIMPs. Matrix metalloproteinase and TIMP expression was found in non-VSS, carcinomas, and VSS. No significant differences were found in patterns of expression among tumor types. Metastasis was found to be the only predictive factor for overall survival duration. A significant correlation was found between MMP2 and MT-MMP16 expression and overall duration of survival.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The identification of MMPs in feline VSS supports an underlying inflammatory pathogenesis for this tumor. Expression of MMP2 and MT-MMP16 were correlated with survival time in our study. ( Am J Vet Res 2004; 65:373–379)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of intracameral injection of preservative-free 1% and 2% lidocaine hydrochloride solution on the anterior segment of the eyes in dogs.

Animals—16 adult healthy dogs (8 male and 8 female) judged to be free of ocular disease.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 8 dogs each. Group 1 dogs received an intracameral injection of 0.10 mL of preservative-free 1% lidocaine solution in the designated eye, and group 2 dogs received 0.10 mL of preservative-free 2% lidocaine solution in the designated eye. After injection, intraocular pressure was measured every 12 hours for 48 hours and then every 24 hours until 168 hours after injection. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy was performed preceding intracameral injection, 8 hours after injection, and then every 24 hours until 168 hours after injection. Ultrasonic pachymetry and specular microscopy were performed preceding intracameral injection and 72 and 168 hours after injection. Corneal thickness and endothelial cell density and morphology were compared with baseline measurements.

Results—No significant differences were found in intraocular pressure, corneal thickness, endothelial cell density, and morphologic features in either group, compared with baseline. A significant difference in aqueous flare was found for treated and control eyes 8, 24, and 48 hours after injection, compared with baseline. No significant difference in aqueous flare was found between treated and control eyes within either group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—No adverse ocular effects were detected after intracameral injection of preservative-free 1% or 2% lidocaine solution; thus, its use would be safe for intraocular pain management in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1325–1330)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research