Objective—To determine pharmacokinetics after IV and oral administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
Animals—9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (3 males, 5 females, and 1 of unknown sex).
Procedures—Tramadol (5 mg/kg, IV) was administered to the parrots. Blood samples were collected from −5 to 720 minutes after administration. After a 3-week washout period, tramadol (10 and 30 mg/kg) was orally administered to parrots. Blood samples were collected from −5 to 1,440 minutes after administration. Three formulations of oral suspension (crushed tablets in a commercially available suspension agent, crushed tablets in sterile water, and chemical-grade powder in sterile water) were evaluated. Plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolites were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography.
Results—Mean plasma tramadol concentrations were > 100 ng/mL for approximately 2 to 4 hours after IV administration of tramadol. Plasma concentrations after oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 10 mg/kg were < 40 ng/mL for the entire time period, but oral administration at a dose of 30 mg/kg resulted in mean plasma concentrations > 100 ng/mL for approximately 6 hours after administration. Oral administration of the suspension consisting of the chemical-grade powder resulted in higher plasma tramadol concentrations than concentrations obtained after oral administration of the other 2 formulations; however, concentrations differed significantly only at 120 and 240 minutes after administration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg resulted in plasma concentrations (> 100 ng/mL) that have been associated with analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.
Objective—To evaluate efficacy and safety of IP
administration of high-molecular-weight carboxymethylcellulose
(HMW CMC) for the prevention
of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions in ponies.
Procedure—A 1% solution of HMW CMC was
instilled intra-abdominally prior to surgery in 5
ponies, whereas 5 control ponies did not receive
HMW CMC. Postoperative adhesions were induced
by use of a bowel-abrasion method comprising
laparotomy, typhlotomy, and abrasion of jejunal
serosa at multiple sites with placement of 3 sutures
at each site. Day of surgery was day 0. After surgery,
ponies were monitored, and hematologic, serum
biochemical, and peritoneal fluid analyses were performed
on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 10. On day 10,
ponies were euthanatized. Intra-abdominal adhesions
were recorded, and tissue samples were collected
for histologic examination.
Results—A significantly greater number of adhesions,
number of multiple adhesions, and mean incidence
of adhesions were identified in control
ponies, compared with CMC-treated ponies. Mean
peritoneal fluid WBC count on day 7 and serum fibrinogen
concentrations on days 5 and 7 were significantly
higher in control ponies, compared with
CMC-treated ponies. Results of serum biochemical
analyses did not differ significantly between the 2
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intra-abdominal
use of 1% HMW CMC during surgery was effective
for preventing postoperative adhesions in ponies.
Use of HMW CMC did not have detrimental effects
on wound healing, intra-abdominal defenses, or
patient health. A 1% solution of HMW CMC may be
used routinely during abdominal surgery of horses for
prevention of postoperative adhesions. (Am J Vet Res
OBJECTIVE To determine the mydriatic effects of topical rocuronium bromide administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and to identify any adverse effects associated with treatment.
PROCEDURES Rocuronium bromide (20 μL/eye; 10 mg/mL) or saline (20 μL/eye; 0.9% NaCl) solution was administered in both eyes of each bird with a 26-day washout period. The birds were manually restrained in lateral recumbency with the apex of the cornea positioned upward for 2 minutes following administration in each eye. Infrared pupillometry and direct pupillary light reflex measurements were used to evaluate the mydriatic effects. Pupillary measurements were recorded prior to administration and every 20 minutes for 2 hours after administration, then hourly for a total of 7 hours. A brief physical examination was performed, direct pupillary light reflex was tested, and fluorescein staining was performed on each eye of each bird 24 hours after administration.
RESULTS A significant difference in pupillary diameter for the active versus control treatment group was noted from 20 to 360 minutes after drug administration, but not at 420 minutes. Minimal adverse effects were noted. Three birds had transient inferior eyelid paresis noted in both eyes after receiving rocuronium; 24 hours after the treatment, no differences in ocular measurements existed between the active and control treatments.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that topical rocuronium bromide administration may be safely used for pupillary dilation in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and could be used for clinical evaluation, fundus imaging, and surgical interventions involving the lens and posterior segment in this species.
Procedures—2 crossover experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 15 parrots received 3 treatments (tramadol at 2 doses [10 and 20 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. In the second experiment, 11 parrots received 2 treatments (tramadol hydrochloride [30 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. Baseline thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured 1 hour before drug or control suspension administration; thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured after administration at 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours (both experiments) and also at 9 hours (second experiment only).
Results—For the first experiment, there were no overall effects of treatment, hour, period, or any interactions. For the second experiment, there was an overall effect of treatment, with a significant difference between tramadol hydrochloride and control suspension (mean change from baseline, 2.00° and −0.09°C, respectively). There also was a significant change from baseline for tramadol hydrochloride at 0.5, 1.5, and 6 hours after administration but not at 3 or 9 hours after administration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg, PO, induced thermal antinociception in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. This dose was necessary for induction of significant and sustained analgesic effects, with duration of action up to 6 hours. Further studies with other types of noxious stimulation, dosages, and intervals are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of tramadol hydrochloride in psittacines.
Objective—To compare pharmacokinetics after IV, IM, and oral administration of a single dose of meloxicam to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
Animals—11 healthy parrots.
Procedures—Cohorts of 8 of the 11 birds comprised 3 experimental groups for a crossover study. Pharmacokinetics were determined from plasma concentrations measured via high-performance liquid chromatography after IV, IM, and oral administration of meloxicam at a dose of 1 mg/kg.
Results—Initial mean ± SD plasma concentration of 17.3 ± 9.0 μg/mL was measured 5 minutes after IV administration, whereas peak mean concentration was 9.3 ± 1.8 μg/mL 15 minutes after IM administration. At 12 hours after administration, mean plasma concentrations for IV (3.7 ± 2.5 μg/mL) and IM (3.5 ± 2.2 μg/mL) administration were similar. Peak mean plasma concentration (3.5 ± 1.2 μg/mL) was detected 6 hours after oral administration. Absolute systemic bioavailability of meloxicam after IM administration was 100% but was lower after oral administration (range, 49% to 75%). Elimination half-lives after IV, IM, and oral administration were similar (15.9 ± 4.4 hours, 15.1 ± 7.7 hours, and 15.8 ± 8.6 hours, respectively).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pharmacokinetic data may provide useful information for use of meloxicam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A mean plasma concentration of 3.5 μg/mL would be expected to provide analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots; however, individual variation may result in some birds having low plasma meloxicam concentrations after IV, IM, or oral administration. After oral administration, meloxicam concentration slowly reached the target plasma concentration, but that concentration was not sustained in most birds.
Objective—To determine the antinociceptive and sedative effects of tramadol in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) following IV administration.
Animals—11 healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex.
Procedures—Tramadol hydrochloride (5 mg/kg, IV) and an equivalent volume (≤ 0.34 mL) of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution were administered to parrots in a complete crossover study design. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 30 to 60 minutes before (baseline) and 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after treatment administration; agitation-sedation scores were determined for parrots at each of those times.
Results—The estimated mean changes in temperature from the baseline value that elicited a foot withdrawal response were 1.65° and −1.08°C after administration of tramadol and saline solution, respectively. Temperatures at which a foot withdrawal response was elicited were significantly higher than baseline values at all 5 evaluation times after administration of tramadol and were significantly lower than baseline values at 30, 120, and 240 minutes after administration of saline solution. No sedation, agitation, or other adverse effects were observed in any of the parrots after administration of tramadol.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tramadol hydrochloride (5 mg/kg, IV) significantly increased the thermal nociception threshold for Hispaniolan Amazon parrots in the present study. Sedation and adverse effects were not observed. These results are consistent with results of other studies in which the antinociceptive effects of tramadol after oral administration to parrots were determined.
An 8-year-old sexually intact female eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) with a 4-day history of hyporexia and lethargy and a 1-day history of tenesmus was examined.
Severe leukocytosis characterized by severe heterophilia and moderate monocytosis was present. Marked dilation of the proventriculus and ventriculus and ascites were identified by means of radiography, coelomic ultrasonography, and contrast-enhanced CT, with no clinically relevant motility noted on ultrasonography. Results of coelomic fluid analysis were consistent with pyogranulomatous effusion. Endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract following proventricular and ventricular lavage showed a thick caseous plaque occupying 30% of the caudal proventricular mucosa. Abundant yeast organisms were evident during cytologic examination of a proventricular and ventricular wash sample, and fecal culture yielded Candida glabrata.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
The bird was treated with SC fluids, assisted feedings, nystatin, fluconazole, amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin, gastroprotectants, maropitant, and analgesics and slowly improved during hospitalization. A marked decrease in proventricular dilation was evident on serial radiographs obtained over a 12-month period. One year after diagnosis, the bird was presented with a 1-week history of hyporexia and lethargy, and fecal culture grew C glabrata. Antifungal treatment was resumed for 3 months. The bird had no clinical signs of infection 16 months after this recurrence, and subsequent fecal cultures were negative for fungal growth.
Findings illustrate the importance of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in diagnosing proventricular and ventricular dilation in birds and emphasize the need for long-term antifungal treatment and monitoring in birds with fungal infections.
To determine the pharmacokinetics of amantadine after oral administration of single and multiple doses to orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica).
12 adult orange-winged Amazon parrots (6 males and 6 females).
A single dose of amantadine was orally administered to 6 birds at 5 mg/kg (n = 2), 10 mg/kg (2), and 20 mg/kg (2) in a preliminary trial. On the basis of the results, a single dose of amantadine (10 mg/kg, PO) was administered to 6 other birds. Two months later, multiple doses of amantadine (5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 7 days) were administered to 8 birds. Heart rate, respiratory rate, behavior, and urofeces were monitored. Plasma concentrations of amantadine were measured via tandem liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were determined via noncompartmental analysis.
Mean ± SD maximum plasma concentration, time to maximum plasma concentration, half-life, and area under the concentration-versus-time curve from the last dose to infinity were 1,174 ± 186 ng/mL, 3.8 ± 1.8 hours, 23.2 ± 2.9 hours, and 38.6 ± 7.4 μg·h/mL, respectively, after a single dose and 1,185 ± 270 ng/mL, 3.0 ± 2.4 hours, 21.5 ± 5.3 hours, and 26.3 ± 5.7 μg·h/mL, respectively, at steady state after multiple doses. No adverse effects were observed.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Once-daily oral administration of amantadine at 5 mg/kg to orange-winged Amazon parrots maintained plasma concentrations above those considered to be therapeutic in dogs. Further studies evaluating safety and efficacy of amantadine in orange-winged Amazon parrots are warranted.
OBJECTIVE To compare the incidence of intra-abdominal complications in dogs following resection and functional end-to-end stapled anastomosis (FEESA) versus anastomosis with an end-to-end sutured technique for treatment of enteric lesions.
PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs undergoing intestinal resection and anastomosis at 3 nonaffiliated private practice specialty centers were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative clinical variables, indication for surgery, surgical technique (sutured end-to-end anastomosis vs FEESA), and evidence of postoperative anastomosis site leakage (dehiscence) were recorded. Variables of interest were analyzed for associations with dehiscence.
RESULTS Dehiscence rates of sutured and stapled anastomoses were 12 of 93 (13%) and 4 of 87 (5%), respectively; odds of postoperative dehiscence were significantly lower for dogs with FEESAs than for dogs with sutured anastomoses (OR, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.94). Among dogs that underwent surgery for treatment of intestinal dehiscence after surgery at another facility, subsequent dehiscence developed in 3 of 5 with sutured anastomoses and 0 of 11 with stapled anastomoses. Dehiscence rates varied significantly among clinics. No other variable was associated with risk of dehiscence. Eleven of 16 dogs with dehiscence were euthanized without additional surgery. Impaction at the anastomosis site was identified months or years after surgery in 3 dogs (4 anastomosis sites) that had FEESAs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Odds for dehiscence were significantly greater for sutured end-to-end anastomoses than FEESAs, and dogs undergoing surgery for previous dehiscence were significantly more likely to experience a subsequent dehiscence with a sutured anastomosis. However, variability of procedure types and dehiscence rates among clinics suggested further research is needed to confirm these findings. Obstruction at the anastomosis site was identified as a potential long-term complication of FEESA.