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  • Author or Editor: David J. Marlin x
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Abstract

Objective—To compare cardiopulmonary responses during anesthesia maintained with halothane and responses during anesthesia maintained by use of a total intravenous anesthetic (TIVA) regimen in horses.

Animals—7 healthy adult horses (1 female, 6 geldings).

Procedure—Each horse was anesthetized twice. Romifidine was administered IV, and anesthesia was induced by IV administration of ketamine. Anesthesia was maintained for 75 minutes by administration of halothane (HA) or IV infusion of romifidine, guaifenesin, and ketamine (TIVA). The order for TIVA or HA was randomized. Cardiopulmonary variables were measured 40, 60, and 75 minutes after the start of HA or TIVA.

Results—Systolic, diastolic, and mean carotid arterial pressures, velocity time integral, and peak acceleration of aortic blood flow were greater, and systolic, diastolic, and mean pulmonary arterial pressure were lower at all time points for TIVA than for HA. Pre-ejection period was shorter and ejection time was longer for TIVA than for HA. Heart rate was greater for HA at 60 minutes. Minute ventilation and alveolar ventilation were greater and inspiratory time was longer for TIVA than for HA at 75 minutes. The PaCO2 was higher at 60 and 75 minutes for HA than for TIVA.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses receiving a constant-rate infusion of romifidine, guaifenesin, and ketamine maintained higher arterial blood pressures than when they were administered HA. There was some indication that left ventricular function may be better during TIVA, but influences of preload and afterload on measured variables could account for some of these differences. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1655–1661)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) concentrations and degree of oxidation of ascorbic acid in horses affected by recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in the presence and absence of neutrophilic airway inflammation.

Animals—6 RAO-affected horses and 8 healthy control horses.

Procedure—Nonenzymatic antioxidant concentrations were determined in RBC, plasma, and ELF samples of control horses and RAO-affected horses in the presence and absence of airway inflammation.

Results—ELF ascorbic acid concentration was decreased in RAO-affected horses with airway inflammation (median, 0.06 mmol/L; 25th and 75th percentiles, 0.0 and 0.4 mmol/L), compared with RAOaffected horses without airway inflammation (1.0 mmol/L; 0.7 and 1.5 mmol/L) and control horses (2.2 mmol/L; 1.4 and 2.2 mmol/L). Epithelial lining fluid ascorbic acid remained significantly lower in RAOaffected horses without airway inflammation than in control horses. Moreover, the ELF ascorbic acid redox ratio (ie, ratio of the concentrations of dehydroascorbate to total ascorbic acid) was higher in RAO-affected horses with airway inflammation (median, 0.85; 25th and 75th percentiles, 0.25 and 1.00), compared with RAOaffected horses without airway inflammation (0.04; 0.02 and 0.22). The number of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was inversely related to the ELF ascorbic acid concentration ( r = –0.81) and positively correlated with the ascorbic acid redox ratio ( r= 0.65).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Neutrophilic inflammation in horses affected by RAO is associated with a reduction in the ELF ascorbic acid pool. Nutritional supplementation with ascorbic acid derivatives in horses affected by RAO is an area for further investigation. ( Am J Vet Res2004;65:80–87)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the suitability of lithium dilution as a method for measuring cardiac output in anesthetized horses, compared with thermodilution and transesophageal Doppler echocardiography.

Animals—6 horses (3 Thoroughbreds, 3 crossbreeds).

Procedure—Cardiac output was measured in 6 anesthetized horses as lithium dilution cardiac output (LiDCO), thermodilution cardiac output (TDCO), and transesophageal Doppler echocardiographic cardiac output (DopplerCO). For the LiDCO measurements, lithium chloride was administered IV, and cardiac output was derived from the arterial lithium dilution curve. Sodium nitroprusside, phenylephrine hydrochloride, and dobutamine hydrochloride were used to alter cardiac output. Experiments were divided into 4 periods. During each period, 3 LiDCO measurements, 3 DopplerCO measurements, and 3 sets of 3 TDCO measurements were obtained.

Results—70 comparisons were made between LiDCO, DopplerCO, and triplicate TDCO measurements over a range of 10 to 43 L/min. The mean (± SD) of the differences of LiDCO – TDCO was –0.86 ± 2.80 L/min; LiDCO = –1.90 + 1.05 TDCO (r = 0.94). The mean of the differences of DopplerCO – TDCO was 1.82 ± 2.67 L/min; DopplerCO = 2.36 + 0.98 TDCO (r = 0.94). The mean of the differences of LiDCO – DopplerCO was –2.68 ± 3.01 L/min; LiDCO = –2.53 + 0.99 DopplerCO (r = 0.93).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These results indicate that lithium dilution is a suitable method for measuring cardiac output in horses. As well as being accurate, it avoids the need for pulmonary artery catheterization and is quick and safe to use. Monitoring cardiac output during anesthesia in horses may help reduce the high anesthetic mortality in this species. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:731–737)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research